Octavio Paz

Submitted by on Sep 11, 2015

PAS (Paz), Octavio

March 31, 1914 – 19 g of on April 1998.

Nobel Prize for Literature, 1990 g of.

Octavio Paz (Paz), a poet and writer, grew up on the outskirts of Mexico City, capital of Mexico, in a house that he described as “one of those old dilapidated mansions, where the garden was transformed into the jungle and where there was a huge room packed full Books ».

He was the son of Josephine Paz Lozano, whose family came from the Spanish province of Andalusia, and Octavio Paz, Sr., a lawyer and advocate of social reforms. As a child in the Paz deeply influenced by my grandfather from his father, statesman and writer who started one of the first sympathetic to portray in his works the Indian population of Mexico City.

In the house where he spent his childhood, the memories Paz, “the garden soon became the center of my world, the library is – enchanted cave. From eagerly flip through picture books, especially historical novels, I removed the paintings of deserts and jungles, palaces and hovels, images of warriors and princesses, kings and beggars. We shipwrecked with Sinbad and Robinson fought with D’Artagnan, fought off Valencia with Sid. The world does not have limits, but all were within reach, and time to make stretchable substance from which wove indivisible moment ».

As a teenager Paz met with the latest works of Spanish literature of his time, and with such authors as Nietzsche, Marx, Hugo and Rousseau. Particularly impressed with his “The Waste Land”TS Eliot. In 1931, seventeen Paz founded his first literary magazine,”Handrails» («Barandal»), and at nineteen he published his first collection of poems titled “Wild month» («Luna silvestre»). Paz attended lectures at the National University of Mexico, but did not finish the course. Instead, he went to Yucatan, opened a secondary school and plunged into the study of the history of Mexico.

In 1937, Paz left Mexico and settled in Madrid. During the Spanish Civil War, he, like many other figures of art and culture, came from the North American continent, supported loyalists in their unsuccessful attempt to defend the republic from the fascist forces of General Francisco Franco. The impressions made by Paz of life in Spain, only strengthened the leftist convictions, which he held as a young man, and in the middle of life.

Back in Mexico, Paz founded another literary magazine, “Workshop» («Taller»). In this edition, and replaced it “Prodigal Son» («El Hijo Pr & oacute; digo») Paz published literary works, gravitated to surrealism, which reflect his interest in culture, traditions and history of Mexico. In addition to his own compositions, Paz gave logged translations of French, German and English authors.

In 1943, Paz received a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation scholarship and went to travel and study in the United States. Two years later he entered the Mexican diplomatic service. He was sent to Paris, where he spent the next five years, met with writers such as André Breton, Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre, and plunged into poetry – in surrealism and in philosophy – in existentialism.

In 1950 was published his main prose work, “The Labyrinth of Solitude» («El labertino de la soledad»), is a deep and unique kind of study of the Mexican national character. This work is considered important for Mexicans, and the present day dual Indian and Spanish heritage, and the influence exerted on them US culture. The book still has such an amazing power to influence that Alice advertisements, professor of Latin American literature of the University of Missouri, said recently: “We can not talk about the Mexican character and does not refer to Paz.”Topics raised in”Labyrinth of Solitude”, to the end remained central to creativity Paz. He wrote: “In Mexico, the Spaniards faced not only by geography, but also with history. That story is still alive: it has more of the present than the past. From pre-Columbian gods and shrines of Mexico remained a pile of rubble, but the spirit that animates the world, has not disappeared – he speaks to us in the alchemical language of myths and legends, in the language of forms of human coexistence, folk art, customs. Being a Mexican writer means listening to the voice of the present, this soprisuschego ».

Once your stay in Paris, Paz served as Mexican ambassador in Switzerland, in Japan and in India. During his years in Asia, he has acquired a deep, continuing interest in oriental poetry, painting and architecture and classical works on Buddhism and Taoism, as reflected in his poetry. In 1956, there was a collection of articles about the poetry of Paz “Bow and Lyre» («El arco y la lira»), which became a milestone for him.

Paz left the diplomatic service in 1968, resigning in protest against the massacre of the Mexican government with student demonstrations in the Plaza de Tlatelolco shortly before the Olympic Games. Articles, which he wrote at this time were devoted to topics such as religion, the problem of gender and culture. In 1970, he joined them in the book “Postscript» («Posdata») – this collection, complete with a few more articles appeared under the title “The Other Mexico» («The Other Mexico») in English in 1972 and 1985. In 1970-ies. Passing taught at Cambridge and Harvard universities. At Harvard, in 1971. 1972, he read a series of lectures devoted to Charles Eliot Norton, [translator of Dante in English]. At the same time he continued to write poetry, to engage in literary criticism and writing about politics. His poetry is becoming more and more experimental. “Blanco» («Blanco», 1967), the most easily understandable Paz poem, can be folded (and therefore read) in several different ways. In addition, Paz experimented with multi-verse and poetic forms of co-authorship.

In any genre in the works Paz is still dominated by a deep interest in Mexico, and social responsibility. But on many other politically active writers Paz featured attraction to the mystical. Commentators, repeating almost word for word, note the breadth and sudden temporary & # 769; s transfers: bringing together such disparate areas of human activity, both modern and ancient art, philosophy, religion, anthropology, psychology and politics, Passing successfully combined surrealism – with classicism and the modern West – ancient Mexico and the traditional Asia.

Passing thought that the emergence of his talent as a writer, he is obliged to search for the present, it has taken in order to re-open the “indivisible moment,”so vividly heartfelt him in the garden of his childhood.”Only now I realized the existence of a secret relationship between what I have defined for themselves as displacement from the present, and versification. Loving moments, poetry is looking for ways to revive them in verse and thereby separated from the continuous time, making a frozen moment. “Responding to news of the award of the Nobel Prize, he confessed:”I came back to the source and discovered that modernity is not something external – on the contrary, it is within us. She and today, and the most that neither is a gray antiquity, it is – coming day and the beginning of the world; her a thousand years old, and she – the newborn. She speaks Nahuatl, draws Chinese ideograms ninth century and flashed on TV ».

In announcing that the 1990 Nobel Prize for Literature will be awarded to Octavio Paz, Sture Allen of the Swedish Academy have the stunning, stout scope of its undertakings. The response appears Passing Academy “Spanish-language writer with a broad international perspective. whose poems and articles on controversial ripe but fruitful union of three cultures: pre-Columbian Native American, Spanish konkistadorskoy and Western modernist. “Presenting the award, the Swedish Academy member Kjell Espmark attracted the audience’s attention to the ability Paz”unite together thought and feeling”to his art and to stop a moment worthy of eternity. As an example he cited an epic poem in 1957″Sun Stone» («Piedra de sol»), which used the image of “stone calendar”- this ancient Aztec artifact is stored in the National Museum of Mexico City. Espmark enthusiastically praised the poem, in which”the laws of dream logic of various countries, the era of self-awareness and how powerfully merged into a single”Here”,”Now”and” I »».

Turning to the most Paz, Espmark said: “Before me there was a task to describe your work, missed while in a few minutes. It’s like trying to squeeze the continent in a nutshell – and for such feats language of literary criticism is poorly adapted. However, it is such a feat you repeatedly commit successfully ».

The specialists in literature in general, rapidly approved the choice of the Swedish Academy. According to Roberto Gonzalez Echevarria, a professor of Spanish at Yale University, the Nobel award for Paz long overdue. “It is obvious that this is one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. He was able to extract the best of everything from the language of the avant-garde and, moving is the best on the native soil, to create a language of Latin American poetry ».

In addition to writing poetry and articles about literature Paz continued detail speak about politics, although his views since youthfully ardent individualist socialism have changed dramatically: he supported the center-right, the Mexican government of the 1990s, approved a rapprochement with the United States and advocated the introduction of the Mexican the political culture of the Catholic tradition. Because of these changes in the environment of the Mexican left Paz was considered a controversial figure. His poetry aroused almost unanimous admiration, but more conservative than the youth, political beliefs alarmed many of his fellow-minded.

In 1972, Paz became an honorary member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, in 1980, received an honorary doctorate from Harvard University. Among his many awards – the Cervantes Prize (the most prestigious in the Spanish-speaking countries) for 1981, the American Noyshtadtskaya Award for 1982 as well as awards from Belgium, Israel, Spain, Mexico and West Germany. In his later years he published artistic and political journal “The Return» («Vuelta»). In 1964, he married Marie-Jose Tramini, they have a daughter.

An additional list of products [in English]:

  1. The outlines (Configurations), 1971.
  2. Renga (strung stanza) (Renga: A Chain of Poems), 1972.
  3. The early poems. 1935. 1955 (Early Poems: 1935. 1955) 1973.
  4. Eagle or sun? (Eagle or Sun?), 1976.
  5. Selected Poems (Selected Poems), 1976.
  6. Sketch shadows and Other Poems (A Draft of Shadows and Other Poems), 1979.
  7. Vozduhorozhdёnny (Airborn), 1981.
  8. Monkey grammars (The Monkey Grammarian), 1981.
  9. Obsidian Butterfly (Obsidian Butterfly), 1983.
  10. Selected Poems (Selected Poems), 1984.
  11. Four Poplars (The Four Poplars), 1985.
  12. One Earth, Four or five worlds (One Earth, Four or Five Worlds), 1985.
  13. On poets and others (On Poets and Others), 1986.
  14. Approaches (Convergences), 1987.
  15. Worship and shame (Homage and Desecrations), 1987.
  16. Sor Juana, or Silky faith (Sor Juana: Or, the Traps of Faith), 1988.
  17. Wood inside (A Tree Within), 1988.
  18. Changeable flow (Alternating Current), 1991.
  19. Collected Poems. 1957. 1987 (The Collected Poems: 1957. 1987) 1991.
  20. In search of date (In Search of the Present), 1991.

Biographical Literature [in English]:

  1. Octavio Paz: Homage to the Poet, 1980.
  2. Contemporary Authors, 1990.
  3. Contemporary Literary Criticism, 1989.
  4. Current Biography, 1974.
  5. Fein, J. Toward Octavio Paz, 1986.
  6. Guibert, R. Seven Voices, 1973.
  7. International Who’s Who, 1991. 1992.
  8. Ivask, I. The Perpetual Present, 1973.
  9. Phillips, R. The Poetic Modes of Octavio Paz, 1973.
  10. Wilson, J. Octavio Paz, 1986.
  11. World Authors, 1970

Previously published:

The Russian translation:

Octavio PazOctavio Paz
Octavio PazOctavio Paz
Octavio PazOctavio Paz

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