FLEMING Ian (Ian Fleming, 1908-1964)
The English writer. He was born on May 28 in London in a wealthy family. Ian’s father was killed in France in August 1914, commanding a division of Oxfordshire Hussars.
Ian studied at Eton and then to Sandherstkom War College. Reputed to be a great athlete. However, to connect the life with the army did not want to, and dropped out of college.
He went to Europe and continued his education at the universities of Munich and Geneva. Fleming preparing himself for a career diplomat, but not passed the entrance exam at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and under the patronage of the family got a place correspondent in Reuters with a salary of 300 pounds a year.
Two years later, in 1933, he was sent as a special correspondent in Moscow to cover the trial of British engineers, employees “Metropolitan Uikers elektrikel Company”, accused of spying. Messages from Moscow Fleming read with great interest. On his return to England he was summoned to the Foreign Ministry.
Fleming at the time was 25 years. Career went uphill. But in October, leaving Fleming Reuters. He accepts an offer to become a partner of the owners of banking institutions.
However, the spring of 1939 as a correspondent for Fleming “Times” again visited Moscow, accompanying trade delegation led by Minister of Foreign Trade in the government Chamberlain. In addition to the obligation to write for the newspaper, he was still certain orders from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Also in 1939, Fleming began working in British intelligence. Since 1941, Fleming – personal assistant to Admiral John Godfrey, chief of naval intelligence. It was with Godfrey, he then will write the famous chef Bond, Sir M.
By the nature of its activities Fleming is often on the road. In this work takes place 7 years old, he goes into retirement in 1946.
After the war Fleming wants to settle in Jamaica, wants to build a house, I have already found a picturesque place – even came up with the name ” “. Goldeneye He is tired and wants to rest.
Measured bachelor life comes to an end in 1952. Fleming marries Lady Rothermere, for which marriage was the third. Change habits. For a time, Fleming worked in the newspaper “Sunday Times”. And in Jamaica, where he is sure to come in January – February, it is waiting for a new hobby. Three hours in the morning and an hour in the evening he wrote a book – “old age”. If earlier – only articles and reports (and even edited the same time own magazine called “scribe”), is now thinking “write a spy story, which turned out to be the last”. He writes and puts on the table, there is no desire to re-read.
The first thing finds its “continuous experiment”. Called the novel “Casino””. Ruayal The book becomes quite”fierce” – Violence, sex, spies, exotic.
Once Fleming in a casual conversation with a friend, William Plomer, who worked in the publishing house became too much to ask specific questions. Plomer guessed that Fleming wrote a book, and asked to see the text. Thing like. Liked and sonorous name of the hero – James Bond. Fleming found him studying the work of the American ornithologist (real) Bond “Birds of the West Indies”.
Publisher Jonathan Cape released “Casino”Ruayal” in 1953. During the year sold 7 thousand. Copies. Soon Fleming bought for 3 thousand. Pounds of film rights work. However, the film will be removed only after 12 years.
The criticism of Fleming wrote the first book of restraint, but not abused. Meanwhile, Fleming was finishing work on a second book with the same hero. Title suitable – “Live – let others die”.
Publisher “Cape”He buys his second novel. At the same time comes the news that the US publishing”McMillan”is going to release”Casino””. Ruayal But Fleming does not rush to the desk to continue the history of Bond. Fleming goes in search of the missing treasures. At his suggestion,”The Sunday Times”He urged everyone to send letters to a newspaper outlining plans to find all sorts of treasures. Hundreds of letters lie on the table of the writer. The energy excites the writer of James Bond, making embark on new adventures. And in Jamaica, a table, born next page”Bond”.
Now, it “Bondyk”out of the printing on schedule – at Easter. Publishers estimated that at that time people travel more, and read the road. Fleming’s works – just a fiction:”Pan axle box” releasing them now also in pocket format and cheap paperback.
In 1955, printed “project””, Munreker where Bond deals with the next”Dragon”. This was followed by the novel “Diamonds – forever”, which has received bad press at first, but Fleming praised fellow writers – Raymond Chandler. He did not fail to note, and then the other thing is it – “From Russia with Love”.
Revenue from “Bond”grew. Flemings he bought a house near Canterbury. Romantic, picturesque town near London. But the writer does not sit at home. He contacted the company selling diamonds, and accepted their offer to go to Zululand, Tangier (Morocco), to trace the secret ways of smuggling diamonds. Thus was born a series of articles, then formed the book”diamonds – smuggled”. The success of it, however. not used – there was Bond.
In 1958 came out “Dr Know”, one of the best novels about Bond. But the criticism was waiting “trifle next”Fleming. Together began to write that”the author’s imagination pretty fed up with that”, “can not be worse than write”. Fleming confused. Defensively, he wrote an open letter to the “Guardian”, which explains that Shakespeare is not going to compete, but work on the conscience, and not please every one. Again Fleming supports Chandler.
In 1959, another monster, which fought Bond became Goldfinger – international gangster, set out to commit a robbery of Fort Knox gold reserve of the US store. And again, the critics wrote that Bond won, it seems all the Martians were alone, let him challenge the newcomers.
In 1960, Fleming decides to give up journalism to devote himself to “”. bondiane In the next book, Bond does not operate such a large scale: 5 small adventures, 5 stories, compiled a collection of”Just for your information”. In 1961, the marathon resumes: Bond participates in the “Operation”Fireball”, and in 1962 appears on the pages of the novel “The Spy Who Loved Me”.
But Fleming tired. Reeled health. He is smoking a lot – three packs a day. I drink – a little, but always taking cue from his hero. In April 1961, he had his first heart attack. I had to go to hospital. He sat on a diet, trying to quit smoking. To take a break from Bond wrote a children’s book “Chitty Chitty-, bang-bento” On a wonderful magic machine. Some of her adventures invented long ago, when telling a story to his young son Caspar.
It seems to go better, but then again thundered all around, rattled. I set off fire-breathing machine of Hollywood. In 1962 he was released the first James Bond film “Dr Know”. The success was phenomenal.
Movie brings money, new concerns, and new demand for Bond. Again Fleming sits at the table – the usual routine in Jamaica. Before him the manuscript – “The Man with the Golden Gun”, a novel which he was not destined to see published.
August 10, 1964, Fleming went to play golf. He felt unwell. Call the doctor, was taken to hospital. They did what they could. August 13, he died.
He was buried in the town of Fleming Sevenhempton, Gloucestershire.
Ian Fleming’s books in the library of today