Leon Trotsky

Submitted by on Sep 2, 2015

Leon Trotsky) Biography of Leon Trotsky (Leon Trotsky) Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), the Russian professional revolutionary, writer and theorist of socialism, military commander. Lev Davidovich Bronstein was born on October 26 (old style) 1879 in Yanovka Ukraine. For the first time acquainted with socialist ideas in 1896 when he visited the last grade of secondary school in Nikolaev. Interest in Marxism Bronstein awakened Alexander L. Sokolovsky, who became his first wife. For the creation of the “South Russian Workers’ Union,”the couple were arrested in 1898 and exiled for four years in Irkutsk. In Irkutsk he and Alexander were among a group of Marxists, which was formed around the newspaper”Iskra”. In September 1902, Trotsky escaped from exile in October, arrived in London and immediately established contact with Lenin. Lev Davidovich used in the escape from Siberia fake documents in the name of Trotsky, who became known for his articles in the “Iskra”and public lectures. In 1903, at the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP in London, he broke with Lenin and joined the Mensheviks. Trotsky did not agree with the”Jacobinism”of Lenin and his concept of the authoritarian organization of the party. After the”Bloody Sunday”January 9, 1905, followed by a revolutionary upsurge, he returned home and participated in the first councils in St. Petersburg. Leon Trotsky played a leading role in the revolution of 1905, led the October general strike and the subsequent uprising, was arrested in December. While in detention, he wrote the book”Results and Prospects”- a pamphlet analyzing the revolution of 1905 in terms of the theory of”permanent revolution.”According to this theory, the world socialist revolution may begin in a backward country like Russia, however, the revolutionary movement here will be successful if they are accepted by the”socialist”measures (such as the nationalization of banks and heavy industry) addressed the”democratic”tasks (eg, division of the land among the peasants or the establishment of a new representative body – the Constituent Assembly). At the trial, he turned his defense in charge of tsarism. Subsequently, he escaped from exile. In October 1907, Trotsky with his second wife and son settled in Vienna. Trotsky wrote a lot for German and Austrian socialist press. In 1908 he began to publish in Vienna a Russian-language newspaper”Pravda”, which is widely distributed in Russia, particularly in St. Petersburg, working volunteers. In 1914, Trotsky published a pamphlet in Switzerland,”War and the International,”which exposed the”capitulation”of European social democratic leaders and called for the formation of the socialist United States of Europe. After moving to Paris, he wrote articles on the war for the Kiev press and published the daily newspaper”Our word”. In 1915 he took part in the Zimmerwald Conference – the embryo of the future 3rd International – and it was the main author of the manifesto. In 1916 he was deported from France to Spain, where he was imprisoned and another expulsion. 13 January 13, 1917, Trotsky and his family arrived in New York, where he had the active support of the left wing of the Socialist Party of the United States and with NI Bukharin produced Russian-language newspaper”The New World,”in which it welcomed the February 1917 revolution. On the way home was abducted by the British secret service and interned; It released only after the Petrograd Soviet forced the Provisional Government were demanding his release. At the end of May 1917, Trotsky arrived in Petrograd and joined the Interdistrict United Social Democrats (Interdistrictites), but ideological and political superiority was on the side of the Bolsheviks. Trotsky himself, too, soon became one of the principal Bolshevik leaders and won wide popularity as a speaker. Imprisoned after the July riots in Petrograd, he was released after the defeat of the Kornilov revolt, and then elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. On this key post, he played a crucial role in the October revolution. It was he who proposed the idea to name the new Soviet government by the Council of People’s Commissars. He himself became the People’s Commissar (Commissar) for Foreign Affairs. In December 1917 he headed the Soviet delegation at the talks in Brest-Litovsk. It prolonged the negotiations, hoping for a quick revolution in Central Europe, and over the heads of the negotiating parties call for the uprising to”workers in uniform”in Germany and Austria. When the Germans decided to dictate harsh peace terms, Trotsky opposed Lenin advocated peace at any price, but not supported by Bukharin, who called for”revolutionary war.”Instead, he put forward the slogan of”neither war nor peace”, ie He called for an end to the war, but offered not to conclude a peace treaty at the same time. In March 1918, Leon Trotsky took the post of military commissioner and took an active part in the creation of the Red Army and the civil war of 1918-1921. At the end of 1920, he ordered him to take the lead in reconstruction completely destroyed the Russian transport system. Trotsky proposed to introduce on all railways strict discipline like the military. Militarization and touched the trade union of railwaymen and transport workers. In the winter of 1920-1921,”the question of the trade unions”has been the subject of heated debate, Trotsky spoke against setting Lenin, supported by Zinoviev and Stalin. In 1922, Lenin was looking for an alliance with Trotsky in the struggle against the danger of bureaucratisation of the party general secretary who was elected Stalin. Trotsky agreed with Lenin’s proposal, however, met with opposition from the”troika”- Stalin, Zinoviev and Kamenev, and at the request of Lenin to take the formal duties of his Personal Representative has put forward the argument that it can cause elevation of anti-Semitic attacks on the Soviet regime. Convinced that the Russian revolution will succeed only if it will join the industrialized countries of Western Europe, Trotsky was working in close cooperation with the German Communist Party for the preparation of the uprising, which is intended to support the full might of the Red Army. In October 1923 the”troika”has used its control functions in the International and at the last minute in favor of abolishing the uprising. The failure of the plan,”the German October”has led to a crisis within the CPSU (b). In an atmosphere of economic difficulties and social tensions were deployed debate about inner-party democracy. During her recovery, Trotsky vigorously advocated the so-called”old Bolsheviks”, signed a special manifesto. In response, the”troika”denounced Trotsky and”Moscow opposition”for”factionalism.”13-The 13th Party Conference, which concluded the debate was preceded by a series of rigging the results of the election of party and bureaucratic manipulation. Speaking as a fully organized faction, the unit – despite the fact that it represented only a minority of the members of the party – not actually made participation in the conference of the opposition, who had been convicted of”Menshevik deviation.” When 21 January 1924 Lenin died, Trotsky was not in Moscow. Delay his return to attend the funeral of false telegram, Stalin used the funeral ceremony for the nomination itself as the heir of Lenin and adopted its position as a leader, proclaiming”Lenin’s Testament”an urgent admission to the party of 100 thousand new members, which could become an obedient tool of the machine. Trotsky has not authorized an offer of his supporters in the Red Army coup and depose Stalin and Zinoviev, but soon he was dismissed from the post of military commissioner. In 1925, Stalin and the party apparatus held up by Bukharin and the”right wing”of the party, were against Zinoviev and Kamenev his ally. Then he defeated the”new opposition”and Zinoviev declared his secret struggle against Trotsky. Then, in 1926, Trotsky urged his allies to unite with former enemies to form a”united opposition”. The authority gave the opposition a few thousand”old Bolsheviks”- veterans of the underground struggle, revolution and civil war. It consisted of a significant number of the most prominent theorists and political party leaders. Signed by 13 members of the Central Committee in April 1926, the”Declaration”containing the program stresses the need for the restoration of democracy and the development of policies to improve the living conditions of the working class and the accelerated industrialization. It called to release the party from the Comintern, paralyzing influence of the doctrine of Stalin’s”socialism in one country”, which turned them into”Border Guard”precipitated the Soviet regime. In the spring of 1927 after the failure of the opposition revived Stalin’s policy toward China (despite warnings from Trotsky and Zinoviev, Stalin forced the Chinese Communists to comply fully Chiang Kai-shek). However, Stalin made a scandal in connection with the penetration of the ranks of the opposition to the former White Guard officer (in the case of an agent of the GPU). Trotsky was able to organize street demonstrations, large public meeting at Moscow University and even print and distribute”The platform of the opposition”, but October 23, 1927, Stalin called to expel him from the party. Despite the sympathy of students and workers to Trotsky, police repression of opposition stopped trying to arrange November 7, 1927 mass demonstrations in honor of the 10th anniversary of the revolution. In December, Trotsky was the last time publicly spoke at the funeral of his friend AA Joffe, who, being terminally ill, committed suicide in protest against Stalinism. In January 1928, Trotsky was forcibly deported to Alma-Ata. Trotsky and other leaders of the opposition was able to address the summer of 1928 with a letter to the Congress of the Comintern. 12 February 12, 1929 he was again deported, this time in Turkey. In Turkey, Trotsky published two large labor – an autobiography”My Life”and the three-volume”History of the Russian Revolution.”But his main task in those years was the mobilization of the left forces in Germany against the growing Nazi threat. Trotsky calls for unity in the fight against the Nazis dismissed as Stalinists, and the leaders of the German Social-Democrats, who saw the enemy first and foremost with each other. Hitler’s victory in February 1933, was immediately hailed as the biggest defeat of Trotsky, the international labor movement. He concluded that the Comintern proved incapable of openly counter-revolutionary policies of Stalin and called for the formation of the 4th International. In July 1933, the new French government, headed by Edouard Daladier Trotsky gave secret refuge in France. But in February 1934, his whereabouts were disclosed by the Nazis, and intense pressure from Germany led to his deportation from France. However, only a year later, the French managed to find a country willing to accept exile. In 1935 the new Labour government of Norway has provided asylum to Trotsky. In Norway, he wrote his most important work -“The Revolution Betrayed”. In August 1936, in Moscow, opened the first of the security forces staged show trials in which Stalin slandered Trotsky as an agent of Hitler. Yielding to pressure, the Norwegian Minister of Justice, Trygve Lie and interned Trotsky said about the undesirability of its presence in the country. In December 1936, President L. Cardenas gave him refuge in Mexico, where he arrived on 9 January 1937, he settled in Coyoacan as a guest of Diego Rivera. In April 1937 she worked here International Joint Commission to investigate the Moscow trials, led by John. Dewey. Evidence of Trotsky contain the full details of his revolutionary ideas and the description of his revolutionary career, and refuted the slander about collaboration with the Nazis. Dewey Commission published a summary of these hearings titled”The Case of Leon Trotsky,”and in 1938 released an opinion on the case titled”Not guilty!” In February 1938, Leon Trotsky, AndrĂ© Breton and Diego Rivera issued a manifesto”to the free revolutionary art”, put forward the slogan:”The independence of art for the revolution. The revolution – for the complete liberation of art!”. At the same time agents of Stalin, he was assassinated in Paris, Leon Sedov – Son of Trotsky and his assistant. Trotsky did not abandon attempts to create the 4th International, whose manifesto (called Trotsky”Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International”) became known as the”program of transitional demands.” Trotsky was fatally wounded by an NKVD agent Ramon Mercader, in Coyoacan, and died August 21, 1940. References to this page
Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky
Leon TrotskyLeon Trotsky

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