Benito Mussolini

Submitted by on Sep 30, 2015

Benito Mussolini – Biography

Benito Mussolini (Mussolini) (1883-1945) – Italian politician, leader (duce) of the Fascist Party in Italy. Italian Prime Minister (1922-1943). Political career began in the Socialist Party, from which he was expelled in 1914. In 1919 he founded the fascist party. By carrying out “March on Rome” (28 October 1922), Mussolini seized power in the country and 1 November 1922 led the Italian Government. As both leader (duce) of the Fascist Party, Mussolini had dictatorial powers. Mussolini’s government has introduced a regime of fascist terror Terrorism (terror) (from the French terreur – the fear, the horror) – The term came into use in the late 18th century to describe the repressive policy pursued by the Jacobins during the French Revolution. Subsequently, terrorism has gained universal significance and is used to denote motivated violence for political purposes .. pursued an aggressive foreign policy (the occupation of Ethiopia in 1936 and Albania in 1939, and others.), Together with Nazi Germany unleashed the 2nd World War. In 1945 he was captured and executed by Italian partisans.

Getting political activity Mussolini

Benito Mussolini was born July 29, 1883, in Dovia. His father was a blacksmith, and his mother – a teacher of primary school. After graduating from high school College (from the gymnasium) – Secondary School in Russia and some foreign countries. It originated in Germany in the 16th century. The first Russian – academic in St. Petersburg (founded in 1726). Since 1804 men’s gymnasium opened in each provincial capital (training period from 1871 – 8 years). From 1862 there were a girls’ school (duration of 7 years, 8 th grade – teaching).

In the 1863-1882 years of secondary education were given military gymnasium (duration 1873 – 7 years). In 1917 it reorganized into secondary schools. In the Russian Federation in 1989 called “gymnasium” take some secondary schools with in-depth study of some subjects. in 1901 he received a diploma of the teacher of elementary grades.

In 1903, Benito joined the Italian Socialist Party (ISP). He served in the Army, was a teacher. In the early 1910s he was active in the shares of the socialist movement, engaged in journalism, was arrested several times.

At the beginning of the 1st World War, Mussolini called for Italy’s entry into the war on the side of the Entente Antana (French Entente, Entente cordiale – entente cordiale) – an alliance of Britain, France and Russia (Triple Entente) took shape in 1904-1907 and united in the course of the First World War (1914-1918) against the Central Powers coalition of more than 20 states (including the US, Japan, Italy) .. In this regard, he was expelled from the party and resigned as editor of the newspaper ISP “Avanti».

Once Italy’s entry into the war (1915), Mussolini was drafted into the army and took part in military operations, he was wounded.

In 1919, based on nationalistic Nationalism – the ideology and policy in the national question, the basis of which – the interpretation of the nation as the highest value and forms of community.

In the 19-20 centuries, nationalism acted as a powerful unifying force in the struggle for national liberation in Europe, and then in Africa, Asia and Latin America, accompanied by the idea of ​​national superiority or national exclusiveness; often takes extreme forms (chauvinism), moving closer to racism and led to sharp internal or inter-state conflicts. the mood of former soldiers, Mussolini created a fascist movement “fighting alliance”, launched pogroms.

The fascist dictatorship

Benito Mussolini fascist organization soon received the support of the ruling circles and quickly gained popularity among the general population who were eager to order. In the elections of 1921 he was elected to the MP (Latin deputatus – sent), – a person elected to a legislative or representative body of the state or local government, a representative of a certain part of the population (the voters of his district) or the nation in the power body. Parliament, and in 1922 he was appointed Prime Minister of Italy. In the elections of 1924 the Nazis gained the most seats in parliament. However, the killing of a deputy Socialist Giacomo Matteoti publicly exposed the falsified election results, put the fascist government to the brink of collapse. MPs from other parties leave parliament and an opposition “Aventine block Aventine block – a block of opposition anti-fascist parties and political groups in Italy, established in 1924.

The unit includes representatives of the People’s (Catholic), Republican and Socialist parties and non-party; to protest the killing of Giacomo Matteotti by fascists (June 10 1924). “. After the assassination attempt on Mussolini in 1926, the country had introduced a state of emergency, banned all political parties except the Fascist. The country was established a fascist dictatorship. It was created the secret police (Ovra) and special fascist tribunal.

engrafted personal cult of the dictator. In addition to the post of prime minister, Mussolini simultaneously held the posts of Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Foreign Affairs, military and naval ministers, was the head of the fascist militia, the first marshal Marshall (the French marechal) – the highest rank in the Russian Army and the armies of several countries (in France since the 16th century); in some armies (including Russian) corresponded to the rank of marshal rank of Field Marshal. Empire, “an honorary member Akademik – the title of a member of the Academy. The academies with a two-stage structure of the membership title of academician – higher education (as opposed to, for example, correspondent member). The academies of several countries there is a title of honorary academician. “Bolognese Philharmonic, had a lot of other titles Title (from the Latin titulus – inscription; honorary title) – an honorary title (for example, count, duke), inherited or assigned individuals to underscore their special, privileged position and requires appropriate titulovannosti (eg Excellency highness). Widespread in the caste feudal society, and in some countries (eg the UK) title still prevails. In Russia, after the October Revolution of 1917 titles were eliminated ..

Mussolini sought to create an empire. In 1935-36 Italian troops invaded Ethiopia was, in 1936-1939, he helped Franco during the Spanish Civil War. In November 1937 Italy joined the “Anti-Comintern Pact Anti-Comintern Pact – agreement concluded November 25, 1936 in Berlin between Germany and Japan and to issue (under the banner of the struggle against the Comintern) block of these states in order to gain world domination. In November 1937 to the “Anti-Comintern Pact”Italy joined, and later a number of other states; in 1939-1940 it turned into an open military alliance (see. Berlin Pact). ‘Concluded between Germany and Japan. Following in the footsteps of German policy, in 1939 Italy invaded Albania. In May 1939, Italy and Germany concluded the”Pact of Steel Steel Pact – the German-Italian treaty of 1939 was signed in Berlin on May 22; He has completed the formation of a military-political bloc of fascist Germany and Italy. ».

The World War II

In June 1940, Italy entered the 2nd World War (World War II) on the side of Germany. Corruption, economic hardship and military defeats have led to the fact that since the mid-1930s began growing crisis of Mussolini’s regime. In January 1943, the Italian army was defeated in Russia, and in May the troops of Mussolini surrendered in Tunisia. July 25, 1943, after the landing of the allied forces (the US [en] and the UK UK (Great Britain) – Britain, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), a state in north-west of Europe, the British Isles (the largest – the island of Great Britain), the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, the Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, the Channel and other small islands. Separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Pas-de-Calais. Area 244 11 thousand km 2. The population of 60.7 million people (2007). The capital – London.) in Sicily, Mussolini was arrested and he was forced to resign.

3 September 1943 the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allied commanders. In response, Germany occupied a large part of Italy. Hitler, Mussolini ordered the kidnap and deliver it to Germany Germany (Deutschland), Federal Republic of Germany (Deutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland) – a country in Central Europe. Washed by the Baltic and North Seas. It shares borders with Poland, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic.

The area of ​​Germany 356.9 thousand km 2 Population 82.4 million people (2007). The capital – Berlin. Biggest cities: Hamburg, Frankfurt, Bremen, Cologne, Leipzig, Munich, Nuremberg, Dortmund, Hanover, Dresden, Chemnitz, Düsseldorf, Halle, Rostock, Stuttgart, Essen, Bonn .. As a result of audacious attacks SS detachment under the command of Otto Skorzeny was Duce released. Until 1945, Mussolini led the fascist puppet government in the town of Salo. He was captured by partisans and April 28, 1945 shot. (e. S. Tokarev)

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