John Locke

Submitted by on Oct 3, 2015

Locke, John) (1632–1704) LOCKE, John (Locke, John) (1632-1704) English philosopher, sometimes called the “intellectual leader of the 18th century.”And the first philosopher of the Enlightenment. His theory of knowledge and social philosophy had a profound impact on the history of culture and society, in particular on the development of the American constitution. Locke was born on August 29, 1632 in ringtones (Somerset) in the family court officials. Thanks to the victory of Parliament in the civil war, in which his father fought as a captain of cavalry, Locke was adopted at the age of 15 years at Westminster School – while leading educational institution of the country. The family adhered to Anglicanism, but tended to Puritan (Independents) views. In Westminster royalist vigorous defender of the ideas found in the person of Richard Busby, who inadvertently parliamentary leaders continued to lead the school. In 1652, Locke entered the Christ Church College, Oxford University. At the time of the restoration of the Stuarts his political views could be called pravomonarhicheskimi and in many ways closer look Hobbes. Locke was a diligent, if not a brilliant student. After receiving a master’s degree in 1658, he was elected”student”(ie, researcher) College, but soon became disillusioned with the Aristotelian philosophy, which was to be taught, he began practicing medicine and helping in natural science experiments, which were conducted in Oxford R. Boyle and his disciples. However, any significant results, he did not get, and when Locke returned from a visit to the Brandenburg court on a diplomatic mission, he was denied the required degree of Doctor of Medicine. Then, at age 34, he met a man that influenced the rest of his life – Lord Ashley, later the first Earl of Shaftesbury, who was not yet the leader of the opposition. Shaftesbury was a lawyer of freedom at a time when Locke still shared the absolutist views of Hobbes, but by 1666 its position has changed and become closer to the views of the future patron saint. Shaftesbury and Locke saw in each other kindred spirits. A year later, Locke left Oxford and took the place of a family doctor, counselor and educator in the family of Shaftesbury, who lived in London (among his pupils was and Anthony Shaftesbury). After Locke operated his patron, whose life was threatened festering cysts, Shaftesbury decided that Locke is too large to deal with a single medicine, and took care of the promotion of his ward in other areas. Under the roof of the house Shaftesbury, Locke found his true vocation – he was a philosopher. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ). Discussions with Shaftesbury and his friends (Anthony Ashley, Thomas Sydenham, David Thomas, Thomas Hodges, James Tyrrel) led Locke to write for the fourth year in London, the first sketch of the future masterpiece – Essay Concerning Human Understanding (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding). Sydenham introduced him to new methods of clinical medicine. In 1668, Locke became a member of the Royal Society. Shaftesbury himself introduced him into the realms of politics and economics, and gave him the opportunity to get a first experience of participation in government. Liberalism Shaftesbury was sufficient materialistic. Great passion of his life was trade. It is better than their contemporaries knew what wealth – national and personal – could be obtained, freeing businesses from the medieval taxation and making a number of other bold steps. Religious tolerance has allowed the Dutch traders to achieve prosperity, and Shaftesbury was convinced that if the British put an end to religious strife, it would be able to create an empire, not only surpassing the Dutch, but equal-possessions of Rome. However, on the way England was the great Catholic power France, so he did not want to disseminate the principle of religious tolerance in the ‘papists’, as he called Catholics. While Shaftesbury interested in practical matters, Locke was busy working the same political line in theory, arguing philosophy of liberalism, which expressed the interests of nascent capitalism. In 1675-1679 he lived in France (in Montpellier and Paris), where he studied, in particular, the idea of ​​Gassendi and his school, as well as perform a number of requests of the Whigs. II. It turned out that Locke’s theory was intended revolutionary future, as Charles II. II and still more his successor, James II to justify its policy of tolerance to Catholicism and even his plantations in England turned to the traditional concept of monarchy. After an unsuccessful attempt to revolt against the regime of the restoration of Shaftesbury in the end, after imprisonment in the Tower of London and the subsequent justification of the court, he fled to Amsterdam, where he soon died. Making an attempt to continue his teaching career at Oxford, Locke went in 1683 after his patron to Holland, where he lived in 1683-1689; in 1685 in the list of other refugees, he was called a traitor (member of the conspiracy Monmouth) and subject to extradition to the British government. II. Locke did not return to England until the successful landing of William of Orange on the coast of England in 1688 and the flight of James II. II. Returning home on the same ship with the future Queen Mary II. Two Treatises of Government . 1689, Locke published his Two Treatises on Governance (Two Treatises of Government. 1689 in a book bearing the year of publication 1690), setting out her theory of revolutionary liberalism. Becoming a classic work in the history of political thought, this book also has played an important role, according to its author,”justifying the right of King William to be our ruler.”In this book, Locke put forward the concept of the social contract, in which the only true foundation is the consent of the sovereign power of the people. If the governor does not justify the confidence people have the right and even the obligation to cease to obey him. In other words, people have the right to revolt. But how to decide when it ceases to serve the people of the ruler? According to Locke, a moment comes when the governor passes by the Board, based on the solid principle, to”changeable, uncertain and arbitrary”rule. II II Most Englishmen were convinced that such a moment came when James II became prokatolicheskuyu conduct policy 1688. Locke himself with Shaftesbury and his entourage were convinced that the moment has come already when Charles II in 1682; this is when the manuscript was created two treatises. Locke said his return to England in 1689, the publication of another work, similar in content to the treatise. Letter for Toleration . namely, the first letter of Toleration (Letter for Toleration. is written mainly in 1685). Epistola de Tolerantia ). He wrote lyrics in Latin (Epistola de Tolerantia). in order to publish it in the Netherlands, and by chance in the English text horrible foreword (written by a translator, a Unitarian William Pople), which states that”absolute freedom. – This is what we need.”Locke himself was not a supporter of absolute freedom. In his view, we deserved the persecution of Catholics, as pledged allegiance to a foreign sovereign, the pope; atheists – because their solemn assurances can not be trusted. As for the rest, the state should leave every right to salvation in their own way. In the Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke spoke out against the traditional view that the secular authorities have the right to spread the true faith, and true morality. He wrote that the force can make people just pretend, but did not believe it. A strengthening of morality (that does not affect the security of the country and the preservation of the world) – it is not the duty of the state and the church. Locke himself was a Christian and stick to Anglicanism. But his personal creed was surprisingly brief and consisted of a single proposition: Christ – the Messiah. In ethics he was a hedonist, and believed that the natural purpose of human life is happiness, and that the New Testament have people the way to happiness in this life and eternal life. Locke saw his task was to warn the people looking for happiness in the short-term pleasures for which subsequently has to be paid with suffering. II Returning to England during the”glorious revolution”, Locke initially intended to take up his post at the University of Oxford, from which he was fired on the orders of Charles II in 1684 after leaving the Netherlands. However, finding a place to have given a certain young man, he gave up the idea and spent the remaining 15 years of his life to research and public service. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ), Soon Locke discovered that enjoys fame, but because of his political writings that appeared anonymously, but as the author of a work Essay Concerning Human Understanding (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding), first published in 1690, but initiated in 1671 and finished in the main in 1686. The experience of a number of editions with the author’s life, the last fifth edition contained corrections and additions, was published in 1706 after the death of the philosopher. It is no exaggeration to say that Locke was the first modern thinker. His way of reasoning differed sharply from the thinking of the medieval philosophers. The consciousness of medieval man was filled with thoughts of unearthly world. Mind Locke are practical, empiricism, the mind rusher, even the man in the street:”What are the benefits – he asked – from poetry?”He did not have the patience to understand the intricacies of the Christian religion. He did not believe in miracles and disgusted attitude toward mysticism. I do not believe people who are holy, and those who are constantly thinking about heaven and hell. Locke believed that people should perform their duties in a world where he lives. «Our share – he wrote – here in this small town in the world, and neither we nor our concerns was not to leave its limits.”Locke was far from despising the London society, which rotates due to the success of his works, but was unable to make the city stuffiness. Most of his life he suffered from asthma, and after sixty suspected ill with tuberculosis. In 1691 he accepted an offer to settle in a country house in otseit (Essex) – invitation Meshem lady, the wife of a member of Parliament and daughter of the Cambridge Platonist Ralph Kedvorta. However, Locke did not allow myself to completely relax in a homelike atmosphere; in 1696 he became Commissioner for trade and the colonies, what made him to appear regularly in the capital. By the time he was the intellectual leader of the Whigs, and many parliamentarians and government officials often turned to him for advice and requests. Locke participated in the monetary reform and contributed to the abolition of the law, to prevent freedom of the press. He was one of the founders of the Bank of England. In otseit Locke to educate his son Lady Meshem and corresponded with Leibniz. There he visited Newton, with whom they discussed the message of the Apostle Paul. However, his main occupation in this last period of his life was the preparation for the publication of numerous works, ideas which he first hatched. A Second Letter Concerning Toleration . 1690); A Third Letter for Toleration . 1692); Some Thoughts Concerning Education . 1693); The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures . 1695) Among the works of Locke – Second Letter Concerning Toleration (A Second Letter Concerning Toleration. 1690); the third letter of Toleration (A Third Letter for Toleration. 1692) Some thoughts on education (Some Thoughts Concerning Education. 1693) Reasonableness of Christianity as it It referred to the Scriptures (The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures. 1695) and many others. In 1700, Locke refused all posts and retired to Oates. Locke died in the house of the lady Meshem October 28, 1704. XVII — XVIII If you try in the most general terms to characterize Locke as a thinker, then first of all we should say that he is the successor of the”line of Francis Bacon”in the European philosophy of the end of XVII – beginning of XVIII century. Moreover, it can justifiably be called the founder of”British Empiricism”, creator of the theory of natural law and the social contract, the doctrine of separation of powers, which is the cornerstone of modern liberalism. Locke was at the forefront of the labor theory of value, which is used for the apologetics of bourgeois society and prove the inviolability of private property rights. He first declared that”property, which arose through the work may outweigh the common ownership of land, because it is labor creates differences in the cost of all things.”17 Locke much has been done to protect and develop the principles of freedom of conscience and religious tolerance. Finally, Locke created the theory of education, significantly different from those developed by his predecessors, including thinkers of the Renaissance. Locke had an enormous influence on European thinkers of the next generation. His work drew the ideologists of the Northern States, including George Washington and author of”The Declaration of Independence”Thomas Jefferson. Thus, in the face of Locke, we have the philosopher, whose works have become a turning point in the development of economic, political and ethical ideas in Europe and America. And he brought some contribution to the development of cultural theories that, in fact, and makes it refers to the theoretical heritage. John Locke was born in the small town of Somerset in the south west of England in the family of a judicial official who, by their political convictions belonged to the Puritans of the extreme left (their colloquially called indepedentami, ie independent, because they do not recognize the authority of the episcopate and appointed priests from among their people). Furnishing the house where above all virtues prized work, freedom of sincere faith in God, has had the most direct impact on the formation of the character of the young Locke. Locke obliged his father’s instruction, and its early awakening interest in matters of religion, law, politics, the study of which he devoted his life. I The school at Westminster Abbey, he entered rather late (the era was rough – in England was raging civil war, which ended in the overthrow and execution of King Charles I and the establishment of personal rule of Oliver Cromwell, and so the mother for a long time did not dare to give her son to the study), but that did not stop he successfully complete the course and go to college of Christ Church, Oxford University. As the best student, who gained the highest score in the entrance examination, it identified the number of students enrolled at public expense, which was a great boon for the family, constantly experiencing financial difficulties. This happened in 1652 and since then more than thirty years, the fate of Locke became associated with Oxford. Locke graduated from the theological faculty, but refused to take orders, as required by university statute for teachers, and so he is not allowed to teach the whole complex of disciplines which was read normally”ostepenennyh”doctors, but only the Greek language, rhetoric. A little later he was allowed to read a course of ethics (it was called in those days”moral philosophy”). As a teacher, Locke entered the medical faculty (he was attracted by the natural sciences and he is heavily involved in physics, chemistry, biology), but after the course to obtain the diploma of doctor of medicine, he was denied. The reasons for the failure of university chronicles speak very vague, but it can be assumed that this was due to the reputation of an atheist and infidel, which is firmly entrenched Locke since the time of the Magistracy and the first editions of his works. But that did not stop Locke, who went on (and quite successfully) to engage in research in the chosen field. Soon, his name became known in the scientific community. He met with the greatest physicists of the time, Robert Boyle, and helps him in his experiments. Locke Advances in the scientific field have not gone unnoticed. In 1668 (he was then 36 years old), Locke was elected a full member of the Royal Society, which is, in fact, was (and is still) National Academy of Sciences of the United Kingdom. He soon changes his kind of activity and begins to engage in politics. This was due to familiarity with the Earl of Shaftesbury, the famous statesman of the time, who offered him the post of personal secretary and tutor of his children. Locke gradually becomes his closest adviser and an opportunity to influence the processes of big politics. He is involved in preparation of a number of legislative acts in the development of tactics and strategy of the ruling cabinet, has a delicate services of secret diplomacy to his patron and friend. Political activity is increasingly captures it, and soon, thanks to his talent, he became one of the recognized leaders of the Whig party (so-called party of the middle and largest of the British bourgeoisie, seeking to consolidate the gains of the English bourgeois revolution, and not to give away the royalists won her freedom). With the support of the opposition, Locke appointed to a number of prominent government posts, where he shows remarkable abilities of a statesman. But soon it successfully launched a political career interrupted. After the fall of the Cabinet of Shaftesbury and the arrest of his patron Locke runs to the Netherlands, which was at that time a haven for immigrants from all over Europe. Royal power demand his extradition for trial and execution, but interferes with an event that dramatically changes the life course trajectories Locke. He met with the Stadtholder (ruler) of the Dutch Republic William III of Orange, who, appreciating his intelligence and political experience brings him to her. After the overthrow of James II Stuart William of Orange, who had indisputable rights to the English throne, Locke returned to England, where he became one of the most prominent figures of the new government. He gets the post of Commissioner for the Colonies and Trade, headed the committee on monetary reform. According to his proposal to create a Bank of England, a number of other financial institutions. At the same time he is engaged in intensive research activities. From his pen one by one out economic, political. treatises. He leads an active debate on the pages of newspapers and magazines with their political opponents. Repeatedly made in Parliament and at meetings of the Royal Council. However, in 1700 he was due to illness leaves all his positions and settled outside London, on the estate of Lord Meshema, which is engaged in the education of his grandson. John Locke died in 1704 while on top of the world, surrounded by honor and respect people *, well aware that his death leaves a whole historical epoch and a new, offensive which John Locke justified and ideologically prepared. The spiritual heritage of Locke’s quite impressive. The number of works written by him include:”Elements of Natural Philosophy”,”Essay on Toleration”,”Two treatises on Governance”,”Some thoughts about education”and finally, the famous treatise”Essay Concerning Human Understanding.”They also published a number of articles, letters, notes, where questions of economics, politics, ethics, religion, pedagogy. A number of papers has been published by Locke under assumed names (he always feared that it could suffer the fate of the Whig Olzhernona Sydney, hanged during the time of Charles II, because his papers found the manuscript of”The reasoning of the government”, which defended the theory of the social contract) and today produce their identification is not possible. Among the works of Locke no book specifically devoted to issues of cultural science, but that does not mean that it does not concern them. Locke’s analysis of texts shows that he did not pass any of the main problems of theoretical cultural studies. He talks in great detail about how there was a human society, culture, laws which determine the existence of the society, which functions are performed by the art, science, religion and law, what is the role of language in the formation of man as a social being. Just need to say that the founder of the English sensationalism offers a different concept of society and the state, rather than Hobbes, although the starting points at both the same. Locke comes from the fact that the natural state in which people stayed at the dawn of its history, is not a”war of all against all,”as Hobbes wrote about it. In his view, the original human society reigned goodwill and mutual support, because there were few people and each owned a plot of land, which he and his family were able to handle it. The individual owned the property, which he himself created, and not encroach on the property of their kind. In other words, Locke believed that private property was originally there, and does not occur at a certain stage of development of human society. Thus, the initial premise for Locke is one of the basic provisions of the philosophy of history, formulated by the ideologues of the English bourgeois revolution is still in the middle of the XVII century. Thus, the natural state of society in Locke looks like a society organized on the basis of equality, justice, independence, people from each other. In this society, relations between individuals are regulated by norms of morality and religion, but not the right, which are people who are in their natural state, do not know anything. However, the accumulation of property of certain members of society, they have a desire to subjugate the like, which, of course, oppose this. The second precondition discord in society and the destruction of harmony of relations becomes a rapid increase in population. With a shortage of land, each sees the other do not mate and enemy, dreams of possessing shares of ownership, it does not belong. So there is a state of”war of all against all,”which lasts as long as people are not aware of the abnormality of the situation of things. In the search out of the situation they will eventually come to the idea of ​​the establishment of the state, which is delegated the power to make peace, protect life and property owners. This agreement is the”social contract”on which rests the entire pyramid of power, economic and legal relations in modern society. Thus, the state, according to Locke, is an artificial, ie, cultural education, created by the will and actions of people. It follows that the genesis of the state repeats the genesis of the culture, and the form of the state correspond to those or other forms of culture. The latter, according to the views of Locke, there is no beginning, it does not come from above, and is created by people. It is not difficult to observe that such an interpretation of culture has much in common with the understanding of culture, present in the works of Hobbes, whose culture is – as the world created by the hands and minds of people in accordance with their needs, interests. Close Hobbes and Locke’s solution to the problem of religion. Locke admits an integral part of the state machine, and believes that it fulfills important social functions, which are not able to perform other public institutions, such as morality and law. But he, unlike Hobbes, he did not consider religion a phenomenon of culture. Faith, in its understanding, is a manifestation of the creative power of God. and no epistemological human needs can not explain its appearance. It should be noted that Locke has put forward its own version of the cosmological proof of the existence of God, however, largely repeating the line of argument of Newton, who believed that apart from God nothing is impossible to find the source of the activity of matter and consciousness. Locke sharply negative attitude to atheists and even offered to deprive them of their civil rights for Atheists in his view, as a natural-born skeptics lose their ability to obey or what does not put the state and ultimately morally degraded, becoming dangerous for others , law-abiding and God-fearing, individuals. It is fair to say that, being a deist of their religious beliefs, Locke did not believe that faith has a right of priority to scientific thought. Moreover, he insisted that all the incomprehensible reason should be rejected. As for Locke, and language problems. From the perspective of the founder of the sensationalism of the English language it is primarily a result of the creation of man, although he had a hand in the creation of God. However, the role of the Lord was only in the fact that it has endowed man with the ability to articulate speech. Yet the words of the man himself created. He also established and the links between them, as well as between objects that they represent. Thus, already in its interpretation of the origin of language, as we see, Locke very thoroughly at odds with Hobbes that God took away a much more significant role in the creation of speech. Locke believes that if a person does not have the capacity to make a sound marks the ideas produced in his brain, and if people did not have the capacity to make a sound common characters available understanding of others, it would never have occurred and people to this day do not We could communicate with each other. But there are those rare abilities that primarily distinguish them from those of animals and birds, such as parrots, which are able to utter articulate sounds. In other words, according to Locke, human speech arises as a consequence of the existence of an innate human capacity for abstraction and generalization of skills Providence initially bind together the object to its nature because of the word. Words from the standpoint of Locke, are directly related to sensory ideas. For example, the word”spirit”in its primary meaning is”the breath”,”angel”,”messenger. Similarly, and other words indicate some ideas that occur in humans as a result of sensory perception of the world, or as a result of internal activities of our spirit. Thus, the basis for the emergence of language is an experience direct sensory contact with the objects of the real or the ideal world. Locke describes in detail how the general concepts are born, / as the language develops. He explains, and the existence of a plurality of languages, which was a stumbling block for many of his predecessors, seized of the matter. He also offers a solution to a number of other challenges that are before / today are the focus of linguists and liNgvis-ing. It is no exaggeration to state – Locke developed the original theory of language, which occupies a worthy place among other concepts, created in much later years. In concluding the cultural beliefs of Locke, you must at least briefly on his concept of education. Without going into details, as soon as we say that Locke reinterpreted the concept of”ideal man.”The ultimate goal of education,”okulturen-ness”of the individual, in his view, should be comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality and a person with impeccable manners, practical by temperament, able to dominate their passions and emotions. In other words, the human ideal – an English gentleman with all its personal characteristics. Locke in his two treatises on the education of the most detailed way talks that must eat and drink the child, in what clothes he preferred to dress, how to develop his talents and abilities and prevent the manifestation of bad habits, how to protect it from the pernicious influence of the servants in What kind of games he should play and what kind of books he has read, etc. It is worth noting that the pedagogical views of Locke is clearly ahead of his time. For example, he strongly objected to the constant use of corporal punishment, believing that”this method of discipline, which is widely used and available teachers their understanding, is the least suitable of all conceivable”19. The use of flogging as a means of persuasion, in his opinion,”generates in the child an aversion to what the teacher has to make him fall in love”20. gradually transforms it into a secretive, malicious, insincere creature whose soul is, ultimately, not available a kind word and a positive example. Locke objected against the widespread practice in those days, petty regulation of child behavior. He believes that young being simply unable to remember the many rules that prescribe etiquette, but because they wanted him to remember using corporal punishment is simply unreasonable and reprehensible from an ethical point of view. Locke believes that the child must be a natural in its manifestations, that he does not need to be copied in the behavior of adults, for which there is a need etiquette and knowledge of the rules of behavior in a given situation is a kind of indicator that distinguishes educated man from ill-mannered.”While the children are small, – says Locke – their lack of secular civility in circulation if they are only interior peculiar delicacy. should parents care less”21. The main thing is what the teacher should strive, says Locke – is to form the child’s idea of honor and shame. “If you can, – he writes – to teach children to cherish the good reputation and the fear of shame and disgrace, then you put them in the correct start, which will always be in effect, and persuade them to do good. I see this as the great secret of education “22. In considering the question of how education, Locke assigns a special place to dance. They are, in his view, “reported a decent children the confidence and ability to hold and thus prepare them for the senior community”23. Dancing in his eyes tantamount to physical training, education and philosophical reflection, which together with the proper application give the desired result. Talking about the methods, Locke stressed that the efforts of the teacher then bring success if between him and educability there, trust and respect for each other. He writes:”Who wants his son to respect him and his prescriptions, he himself must be treated with great respect to her son” 24. Putting the question about the relationship between educator and educability was extremely radical for the time, and many criticized Locke that his arguments, he crushes traditions and undermining the authority of teachers. The gentleman from the point of view of Locke, should be able not only to behave impeccably, but also exquisitely speak and write correctly. Among other things, he should know foreign languages, including those on which were written the treatises of previous centuries – Greek and Latin, and of the”living”languages ​​should be chosen for the study of that which is useful to the gentleman for communication and business contacts. The gentleman from the point of view of Locke, should be a great horseman and swordsman. Not more than is the possession of other weapons, because he must be able to defend his honor and the honor of their loved ones, but teaching versification and music is not at all, according to Locke, mandatory. The author of”Some Thoughts Concerning Education”recognizes that these skills are highly sought after in the aristocratic society, but they need to spend so much time that the waste is not rewarded with the result. In addition, as pshyet Locke,”I rarely heard any of the capable and business people praised and appreciated for his outstanding achievements in music, I think, among the things that have ever been included in the list of secular talents, she It could take the last place” 25 . Finally, the English gentleman to be God-fearing, good to know and respect the laws of their country. That is, in the most general terms, the ideal personality in accordance with the ideas of Locke. Not hard to see that it is fundamentally different from that ideal person, which is contained in the works of thinkers of ancient Greece, ancient Rome, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Locke offers to society’s efforts to focus on the creation of a new social type based on purely utilitarian needs available to the ruling class, which was formed in England as a result of the”glorious revolution”and”class compromise in 1688″. This view of the problem of the true representative of his time, the time of the consolidation of the various political forces and major transformations in all spheres of public life, which ushered in the transformation of England into the most advanced capitalist power in modern times. Original text Contribute a better translation
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