Pablo Picasso

Submitted by on Sep 6, 2015

1. Childhood and years of education (1881-1900)

Pablo Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain are Andalusian province. At the baptism of Picasso’s full name was Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Krispinyano Crispin de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso – that the Spanish custom is a succession of names saints and relatives of the family. Picasso – name of the mother, who took Pablo since the surname of his father seemed to him too ordinary, besides Picasso’s father, José Ruiz, he was an artist.

Pablo showed early talent for drawing. Already 7 years, he learned from his father the art of drawing, which first commissioned him to build upon the feet of the dove on his paintings. But one day, entrusting thirteen Pablo finish quite large still life, he was so impressed with his son technique that, according to legend, he gave up painting.

At the age of 13 years Pablo Picasso brilliantly entered the Academy of Arts in Barcelona. In preparation for the exam, students usually takes a month, Picasso left a week. He struck a commission for his skill and was admitted to the Academy despite his young age. Picasso’s father, together with his uncle decided to send Pablo in Madrid academy “San Fernando”, which was considered at that time the most advanced school of arts in Spain. So, Pablo in 1897 at the age of 16 years arrived in Madrid. However, studies in the School of Arts will not last long, less than a year, and Pablo was taken by all the other delights of life in Madrid, as well as the study of the works impressed him then artists – Diego Velazquez, Francisco Goya and El Greco in particular.

A collection of early works by Picasso in Barcelona, ​​in the Picasso Museum. The most famous of them: “First Communion”(1896) – a large painting of Picasso’s sister Lola,”Self-Portrait”(1896),”Portrait of Mother”(1896). As an adult and visit once the exhibition of children’s drawings, Picasso said: “At their age I drew like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to draw how they” .

During his studies in Madrid, Picasso made his first trip to Paris – then the European capital recognized arts. There he spent several months visiting every single museum, studying the art of the great masters: Delacroix, Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh, Gauguin and many others. Also, he was fond of the art of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, Gothic sculpture, Japanese prints. Pablo was interested in everything. Then, in the early years of his life in Paris, he met the collector and dealer Ambroise Vollard painting. poet Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, and many others. He again visited Paris in 1901 and in 1902 and was finally moved there in 1904.

2. “Blue” period (1901-1904)

By the “blue”period includes works created between 1901 and 1904. Gray-blue and blue-green deep cold, the color of sorrow and sadness, are always present in them. Picasso called Blue “color of all colors”. Frequent subjects of these paintings – gaunt mothers with children, vagrants, beggars, blind. The most famous works of this period:”Life”(1903),”Breakfast is blind”(1903),”The Frugal Meal”(1904),”The Absinthe Drinker”(1901),”Rendezvous”(1902),”Mother and Child”( 1903),”The old beggar with a boy”(1903,”Aisle”(1904),”Two” (1904).

3. ‘Pink’ period (one thousand nine hundred and four – in 1906)

“pink period”is characterized by a cheerful tones – ocher and pink, as well as sustainable themes pictures – Harlequin, wandering actors, acrobats (“Family Comedians” (1905),”Acrobat and Young Harlequin”(1905),”The Jester” (1905). Fascinated by comedians that have become models of his paintings, he often visited the circus Medrano, at that time Harlequin – favorite character Picasso. In 1904 Picasso met the model Fernanda Olivier. which inspired him to create many significant works of this period. They lived in the center of bohemian life in Paris and the mecca of Parisian artists of the Bateau-Lavoir. This strange dilapidated building with dark stairs and winding corridors was the home of a very heterogeneous group: artists, poets, merchants, street cleaners. Here, in perfect poverty on the brink of poverty and indescribable tvoorcheskom mess Picasso constantly he is writing his Fernando and was looking his way.

The famous “Girl on the Ball”(1905) refers to the transitional pictures between”blue”and”pink”periods. The artist plays on the contrast and balance of shapes and lines, gravity and lightness, stability-instability. Also, at the end of”pink period”appeared”antique”pictures -“Boy Leading a Horse”(1906),”Girl with a goat” (1906) and others.

4. “African” period (1907 – 1909)

In 1906, Picasso was working on a portrait of Gertrude Stein. He rewrote it about eighty times and, according to the memoirs of the Gertrude Stein, Picasso finally told her in a rage: “I stopped to see you, when I look at you”. and I left work on the portrait. It was a turning point in his work and from here began the path of Picasso from the image of specific people to the image of man as such, and to the form as a separate structure. Picasso needed to confirm its way to the overall development of the art world and new experiences to gain a new creative energy and the opening of the science at the time of the formation of the whole African culture and the impetus for the artist. He was particularly interested in African sculpture and masks, he thought they were endowed with magical powers and found them easy sensual forms. Most likely these”African influences” and determined the final portrait.

In 1907 there was the famous “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.”Above them, the artist worked more than a year – long and hard, but before that he worked on his other paintings. The first public reaction – shock. Matisse was furious. Even most of the friends did not take the job. “I have the feeling that you wanted to feed us a tow, or drink gasoline”, – said the artist Georges Braque, Picasso a new friend. Scandalous picture, which gave the name of the poet A. Salmon, was the first step on the way of painting to cubism, and many critics consider it the starting point of contemporary art.

5. Cubism (1 909 – 1,917)

The “cubic”period of Picasso distinguish several stages. “Cezanne” Cubism. presented in”The can and bowl”(1908),”Three Women”(1908),”Woman with a Fan”(1909) and others, is characterized by”Cezanne”tones – ocher, green, brown, but more diffuse, dull and use simple geometric shapes, from which the image is constructed. “analytical” cubism. the object is crushed into small pieces, which are clearly separated from each other, objective form as it spreads on the canvas.”Portrait of Ambroise Vollard”(1910),”The plant in Horta de San Juan”(1909),”Portrait of Fernande Olivier”(1909),”Portrait of Kahnweiler”(1910). In step “synthetic” cubism Picasso make decorative and contrasting character. The paintings depict the most part still life with various objects: Music instruments, notes, bottles of wine, tobacco pipes, cutlery, posters. Also, the fear of transformation into a purely abstract cubist aesthetic exercise, understandable only to a narrow circle of Picasso and Braque used in his works real objects: wallpaper, sand, rope, etc. Works”synthetic”period,”Still Life with Wicker chairs”(1911-1912 ) Bottle of Pernod (Table in the cafe)”(1912)”m Violin Guitar”(1913).

In spite of the rejection by the majority of Cubism, Picasso bought very well. Finally ends a miserable existence and Pablo Fernando in September 1909 moved to the spacious and bright studio in Clichy, 11. Of course, Picasso, and do not forget to carry a mandatory mess: fancy bottles and vases, guitars, old carpet, painting favorite artists – Matisse, Cézanne, Rousseau, a collection of African masks. He always said that experiencing the horror of harmony and good taste. He bought things that he liked, without worrying about how they look together.

In the fall of 1911 Picasso parted with Fernando. His new muse became Eve (Marcel Humbert), with whom he lived and created his cubical work in Montparnasse and in Avignon. One of the works devoted to Eve – “Nude, I love Eve” (1912). Then came the sad years: war, mobilization and parting with a lot of friends, unexpected illness and tragic death of Eve.

6. Neoclassicism (in 1918 – 1,925)

In the spring of 1917 the poet Jean Cocteau. collaborated with Sergei Diaghilev. Picasso offered to make costumes and scenery for the future of ballet. The artist went to work in Rome, where he fell in love with one of the dancers of Diaghilev troupe – Olga Khokhlova. They married in 1918, and in 1921 they had a son, Paul.

At this time, his paintings are very far from Cubism; at them clear and understandable form, bright colors, the right person. The most vivid picture of those years – “Portrait of Olga in an Armchair”(1917). Picasso actively criticized for a change of style as before criticized for Cubism. On these charges, he said in an interview: “Whenever I want to say something, I say in the manner in which, in my sense of it has to be said”. Other paintings “realistic”period”Bathers”(1918),”Women running on the beach”(1922),”Children’s Portrait of Paul Picasso” (1923).

7. Surrealism (one thousand nine hundred and twenty-five – 1 936)

“Beauty will be convulsive or it will not be” – said Andre Breton. the founder of surrealism. trends in art, aims to grasp the true depth of artistic creativity by penetrating into the world of dreams and the unconscious.

In 1925, Picasso painted “The Dance”. The aggressive, painful, with deformed figures, it reflects the difficult period in the family life of the artist and at the same time announces a new turning point in his work. Picasso is close to the Surrealists, but he’s always your way.

On a cold January day in 1927 Picasso met seventeen Marie Therese Walter. He bought the castle for her Buazhelu and there she was his only model, and the heroine of several of his famous works, such as “Mirror”(1932, private collection),”The Girl in the mirror”(1932, Museum of Modern Art, New York); She also made a sculpture”Woman with a Vase” (now she stands at the grave of the artist)). In 1935, Maria Teresa gave birth to daughter Maya, but by 1936 Picasso parted with the two women, but was not officially divorced Olga Khokhlova until her death in 1955.

In the years 1930-1934 Picasso interested in sculpture and creates a series of sculptural works in the spirit of surrealism, “Reclining Woman”(1932),”A man with a bouquet”(1934), and with the help of his friend Spanish sculptor Julio Gonzalez different constructs metal abstract design. In the same 30-ies. it creates a series of engravings, illustrations for”Metamorphoses” by Ovid (1930) and the works of Aristophanes (1934), indicating that the Classic has always been a strong source of inspiration.

8. The war in Spain. Guernica. The Second World War (1937-1945)

Since the 1930s in the work of Picasso, there is such a key theme for him the image of a bull, the Minotaur. The artist creates a series of works with this character (“Minotavromahiya”, 1935), and the myth of the Minotaur Picasso treats differently. For Picasso’s bull, the Minotaur – a destructive force, war and death.

The climax of this theme was the famous painting of Picasso’s “Guernica” (1937). Guernica – a small town of the Basques in northern Spain, almost razed to the ground by German aircraft May 1, 1937. This huge (almost eight meters in length and three and a half in height) monochrome (black, white, gray) painting was first exhibited in the Republican pavilion of Spain at the World Exhibition in Paris.

One of the Gestapo ransacked the house of Picasso. The Nazi officer who saw the photo on the table, “Guernica”and asked:”Are you done?”. “No”- said the artist -“you did it”.

At the same time set up and a series of monsters “Dream and Lie of Franco”(1937) (in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War Picasso supported the Republicans and opposed the supporters of General Franco) and a number of paintings on a similar theme:”Night Fishing at Antibes”(1939),”Weeping Woman”(1937) (the last picture he wrote to Dora Maar, Yugoslav female photographer with whom Picasso met in 1936, she became famous for the fact that captured the stage works by Picasso on the”Guernica”).

During the Second World War, Picasso lived in France, where moving closer to the communist resistance fighters (even in 1944 Picasso joined the French Communist Party). At this time, it creates such pictures with the same leitmotif bull, war and death, “Still Life with bovine skull”(1942),”Aubade”(1942, Nat. Museum of Modern Art, Centre Pompidou, Paris),”Slaughterhouse”( 1944-1945, the Museum of Modern Art, New York) and the sculpture”Man with the lamb” (1944). which was established subsequently to the old Romanesque cathedral in the market square of the city Vallauris in southern France.

9. The post-war period (1945 – 1960e)

Even in peacetime, in 1946, Picasso makes a picturesque ensemble of 27 panels and paintings for the castle of the princely family of Grimaldi in Antibes – resort city on the Mediterranean coast of France. Panels in the first room called “The Joy of Being” and the entire series is sustained in the same spirit of harmony with nature and being – Image fauns, naked girls, centaurs, fantasy creatures …

In 1946, Picasso met a young painter Francoise Gilot, and moved with her to the castle Grimaldi. Françoise soon gives him a son Claude and daughter Paloma. Francoise devoted to painting “Woman Flower”. (In 1953, Francoise ran away from Picasso and two children because of its complexity and constant change, the artist was very upset by this separation, which is reflected in some of his work at the time – for example, in a series of ink drawings depicting the hideous old dwarf buffoonery contrasting young and beautiful girl).

In 1949, Picasso paints his famous “Dove of Peace”on the poster of the World Peace Congress in Paris, and in 1951 creates the political picture”Massacre in Korea”(Picasso Museum, Paris). Since 1947, Picasso lived in the south of France, in the town of Vallauris where paints in 1952, the walls of the old chapel allegorical symbols of war and peace, and he calls it all”Temple of Peace”. In Vallauris Picasso took up ceramics. He creates his favorite characters – centaurs, fauns, bulls, doves, female, making anthropomorphic pitchers. So far in this town in the south of France, survived the so-called “ceramic workshops”that continue to keep the brand”Picasso”and replicate the product, invented by the artist. In 1958, already a recognized and renowned artist creates for the UNESCO building in Paris, monumental composition”The Fall of Icarus”. In 1961, nearly 80-year-old Picasso marries 34-year-old beauty Jacqueline Roque. She inspires him to a series of portraits in which you can see her chiselled profile sphinx. For her and himself, he bought a villa in Cannes.

In the 1950s, Picasso wrote variations on the theme of famous masters – Velasquez, Goya, Manet in free scandalous cubist style “Girls on the bank of the Seine. By Courbet”(1950, Kunstmuseum, Basel),”Algerian women. In Delacroix “(1955),”Las Meninas. According to Velasquez”(1957),”Breakfast on the grass. mana”(1960).

10. Recent years (late 60s – 1973)

In the late works of the artist often refers to a woman portrait (portraits of Jacqueline Roque). Jacqueline is the last and faithful woman Picasso and caring for him, already sick, blind and hard of hearing, until his death. Picasso died on April 8, 1973 at the age of 92, a multimillionaire in Mougins in France and buried near the castle belonged to him Vauvenargues. He left more than 80 thousand jobs (according to other sources about 20 thousand). On the death of Picasso himself said so: “I always think about death. She’s just a woman who will never leave me,” . During the life of the artist, in 1970 opened the Picasso Museum in Barcelona (paintings for the museum handed Picasso himself), and in 1985 the efforts of the artist’s heirs – have been created Picasso Museum in Paris, with more than 200 paintings, 150 sculptures and thousands drawings, collages. prints and documents.

Creativity Picasso radically affected the course of the development of art and culture of the XX century. And at auctions worldwide still are found and put up for sale more and more, yet little-known work of the famous master of his huge heritage.

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