Orson Welles

Submitted by on Sep 4, 2015

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Orson Welles

George Orson Welles

The American film director, actor, screenwriter.

George Orson Welles born May 6, 1915 in the small town of Kenosha, near Chicago (Wisconsin, USA).

His father, Richard Head – the inventor of self-taught. Mother Beatrice Ives – famous pianist.

Orson was a multi-talented child. With ten years, he participated in school plays, painted scenery and guided rehearsals took lessons “serious painting”. Junior Wells was also a musician, a magician, he knew by heart the whole of Shakespeare.

In 1931, Orson went to Ireland for studies. Having spent almost all the money to buy a donkey and cart, the hapless artist remained virtually destitute. Some days he spent sleeping under the wagon.

When the nights were cold, Wells arrived in Dublin on the last money bought a ticket for a performance of the theater “gate”. Among the extras I appeared familiar to him the student. He presented a theater director Orson, and the young man got his first role. It turned out that Wells extraordinary acting talent.

Once the tour of Ireland, Wells went to Spain. In Seville, he wrote detective, played the role of bullfighter under the name American in bullfighting.

Back in America, thanks to the patronage of the writer Wells Thornton Uyldera got actor in a traveling theater troupe, and April 14, 1936 in Harlem theater “Lafayette”held scandalous premiere of”Macbeth” in his statement.

In 1937, producer John Wells and Hauzmen organized on Broadway own entreprise – “Mercury-tietr» (Mercury Theatre). Here Wells achieved international recognition for its innovative for its time approach to staging Shakespeare “Julius Caesar”: dressed in modern costumes the actors playing on the stage without scenery, quaint lighted light.

In 1938, the company “Mercury-tietr”began to act with weekly auditions on the channel CBS. Radioteatr opened production of”Dracula”by Bram Stoker. Soon Welles radio show carried on the novel by HG Wells’ War of the Worlds”, making a parody of the running commentary from the scene. Action was postponed in “real time”in the October 30 (Halloween, when taken to frighten the others and play), 1938 in New Jersey. Of the six million people who heard the broadcast, one million believed in the reality of what is happening. There was mass panic, tens of thousands of people to leave their homes (especially after allegedly calling President Roosevelt to remain calm), the roads were clogged with refugees, the Americans rushed as far away from New Jersey, and motorized police, by contrast, was sent to New Jersey. Telephone lines were paralyzed: thousands of people reported seen supposedly ships Martians authorities. The Navy had canceled shore leave. Subsequently, the authorities took 6 weeks to convince the population that the attack happened. After setting radio show gained notoriety, and in December of the same year it became the sponsor of the company”Campbell Soup”(Campbell Soup). Radioteatr changed its name to”Campbell Playhouse» (Campbell Playhouse). Increased thanks to the sponsorship of the budget allowed to invite to participate in productions of theater and film stars such as Laurence Olivier, Lionel Barrymore, and others (the flip side of sponsorship was the need to include in each issue of three or more advertising Campbell soups). In total, Wells participated in 78 productions (56 of them under the “Campbell Playhouse”), and then was forced to leave the show at the end of March 1940 due to the inability to combine participation in the auditions to work in film. After retiring Wells productions continued to go for one more season.

The young director became interested in Hollywood. Wells claimed the contract gives him creative freedom. After lengthy negotiations, a contract was signed. At the studio “RCO” 24-year-old Wells received a unique opportunity to be both a writer and an actor and director.

However, it soon became clear that the topics that interested Wells, “not good”, he did not like the script, celebrities refused to shoot him, and studio executives did not dare to finance the picture, without movie stars.

During the first eleven months were disputes. However, Wells did not waste time and intensely studied Cine and cinema.

Finally, July 30, 1949 he began filming the movie “Citizen Kane”. All major role Orson invited theater actors “Mercury”. In October 1940, Wells has completed work on the film. By all accounts, debut 25-year-old director became the only film that after the arrival of sound cinema has had a significant impact on world cinema.

Telling the story of Kane, Welles and his co-author Herman Mankiewicz learned a lot from the biography of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. On hearing this, the billionaire promised the producers a lot of money if they destroy the negative. The film nevertheless came out in rent, but the Hearst newspapers did their best to drown him. The studio has lost 150 thousand dollars.

shooting her second film – “The Magnificent Ambersons”(1942) – Wells graduated at a time when the bombs fell on Pearl Harbor. Then he participated as an actor, writer and producer in the creation of the detective film”Journey into Fear”.

At this time in Hollywood led the fight against wastefulness. These “”, Ambersons is not yet mounted, cut (without the author’s knowledge) are some important scenes and announced the film a commercial failure. Wells ordered to pay rework”Travel in fear”and roughly put out the door”RCO”.

There have been changes in the director’s personal life. September 7, 1943 Orson has married a movie star Rita Hayworth (his first wife, a beautiful socialite Virginia Nicholson, came from the higher society of Chicago, they had a son, Christopher).

Wells continued to work on the radio as a writer and actor (and during the war and how pusblitsist browser), participated in the Concerto for serving on the front oldat – he showed tricks. June 7th, 1944, just a day after the Allied landings, Orson led an exciting report from Normandy.

Wells was a liberal left-wing and progressive reforms supported President Roosevelt, being a member of his famous “think tank”. The president even consulted him about his speeches. Orson was in Roosevelt’s election campaign.

In Hollywood, the new contracts are not offered to him. Wells began to drink heavily. In December 1944, Rita gave birth to a daughter Rebecca, but it did not save their marriage gave a crack.

To meet with actresses Orson rented an apartment at the company “MGM”. Heyourt fall of 1945 announced that it parted with her husband. Officially, they were divorced 10 September 1947. Later fiancee Kellsa will Irta Kitt, which he called “the most exciting woman in the world”, and actress Oja Kodar Yugoslav.

Since January 1945, Wells led a column of political news in several major newspapers, and after the war combined work in theater with activity on TV.

Finally, thanks to the personal support of the famous producer Samuel Spiegel he was able to return to the studio in the role of director. However, conditions were harsh: Spiegel control not only the installation, but also shooting. Perhaps for this reason, the anti-fascist film “stranger” (1946) did not become the best work of Wells.

In 1948, Orson had the opportunity to put two more pictures – “The Lady from Shanghai”and”Macbeth”. after an unsuccessful hire both pictures the director was forced to move to Europe.

Paris, London, Rome, Morocco, Venice – Wells shot and shoot wherever it was possible.

During “Macbeth”left”Othello”(1952), won the Cannes Film Festival”Palme”. On filming in different parts of the world it took about four years.

In 1955 Wells married Paola Mori. They had a daughter, Beatrice.

Two years later, the director returned to Hollywood, where he staged “Touch of Evil”by Whit Masterson detective novel”Sign of Evil”. However, thorough processing, which Welles subjected the literary source, displeased Hollywood producers. Even the triumphant success of the picture in Europe they were not reassured.

New page creation Wells opened in 1962 year. In the next five years, he managed to shoot three films, the process of creating that he controlled at all stages, from script to final cut: “process”(1962),”Midnight Bells”(“”, Falstaff 1966) and” immortal stories” (1967).

In 1975, the screens out the artistic-documentary film “F for Fake” (1975), which became the last great work of the master.

Welles starred in all his films, also played in the films of other directors. One of his best-known acting work was the role of Harry Lime – spirited and unscrupulous businessman, speculating in the war on the “black market» (“Third Man” – The Third Man, 1949).

He died in Los Angeles October 10, 1985 of a heart attack.

prizes and awards

– «Oscar”for Best Script in 1941 for the film”Citizen Kane».

– «Palme d’Or”in 1952 for the film”Othello».

– the French Society of Film Critics Award in 1964 for his film “The process».

– The American Film Institute Award “for outstanding contribution to cinema” in 1975.

The latest update: 09.02.13

Orson WellesOrson Welles
Orson WellesOrson Welles
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