Nelson Mandela

Submitted by on Sep 18, 2015

Biography of Nelson Mandela

Former South African President Nelson Mandela has died at the age of 95 years.

The public and political figure of the Republic of South Africa (South Africa), South Africa’s former president (1994-1999), Nelson Mandela (Nelson Mandela) was born July 18, 1918, near Umtata (Eastern Cape of South Africa).

His great-grandfather was a tribal chief Tembo. One of the leader’s sons, named Mandela, became Nelson’s grandfather. From his name and surname has been formed. At birth name Rolihlahla Mandela received, which means “terminator tree branches,” and translated from the local language shaped restless, troublemaker, troublemaker. The school where the African children were given English names to make it easier for teachers to utter them, Nelson Mandela became known – after a British admiral.

Nelson Mandela was in college Fort Hare, from which in 1940 for participating in a student strike was excluded. He worked as a guard at a mine in Johannesburg, served in a law office in Johannesburg.

In 1943, Mandela began to study law at the University of the Witwatersrand, where he studied until 1948, but never received a law degree. Later he studied at the University of London, but also did not finish it. Nelson Mandela received a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1989. Only in the last few months of his imprisonment. While in prison, he studied by correspondence at the University of South Africa.

In 1944, Nelson Mandela joined the Youth League of the African National Congress (ANC) and soon became one of its leaders. In the 1950s he was one of the most active fighters against apartheid in southern Africa. He was repeatedly arrested by the police.

Since the end of 1953 the South African government banned Mandela to speak at public events for two years and renewed the ban for five years in 1956. Nelson Mandela was convicted of treason in 1956 and acquitted in 1961.

Once the events at Sharpeville (1960), as a result of the riots killed 67 Africans, the South African government banned the ANC. Mandela went underground. In June 1961 the leaders of the ANC decided to move to armed methods of struggle against apartheid. It was formed by ANC military organization led by Mandela. In June 1964, he was arrested by the security forces of South Africa, and sentenced to life in prison.

During his imprisonment, Nelson Mandela has gained international fame. In South Africa and in other countries, a movement for his release. 18 years he spent in prison on the island of Robbon (1964-1982), in 1982 was transferred to the Cape Town prison, which spent six years, after which he was hospitalized with tuberculosis. In 1985, Nelson Mandela rejected a proposal by South African President Pieter Botha’s release in exchange for the abandonment of the political struggle.

In 1990, the crisis of the system of apartheid and Mandela was released in 1991, he was headed by the ANC.

In 1993, Nelson Mandela and South African President FW de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to put an end to apartheid.

In 1994, South Africa held its first national elections with the participation of the African majority, which resulted in Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa.

In 1996, under his leadership, it has developed and adopted a new constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees equal rights for all South Africans, regardless of race, gender, religion or sexual orientation.

While remaining as president, Mandela in December 1997, he resigned as leader of the ANC. and in the 1999 elections he did not put his candidacy for the presidency of South Africa.

Nelson Mandela – author of several books, among them a prominent place is occupied by “There is no easy road to freedom”(1965),”I am ready to die” (1979).

He was awarded numerous government awards dozens of countries (including the Soviet Union, Russia, the US, UK, Canada, India, etc.).

In November 2009 the UN General Assembly declared July 18 as International Day of Nelson Mandela in recognition of the contribution of the former President of South Africa to the cause of peace and freedom.

In 2011, Nelson Mandela led the list of the world’s leaders with an impeccable reputation on the results of a study conducted by Reputation Institute, which was attended by more than 50 thousand people from 25 countries around the world.

Nelson Mandela has been married three times. With his first wife Evelyn (1922-2004) he lived from 1944 to 1958. In this marriage were born four children – two daughters and two sons. One of his sons died in infancy. Marriage to a second wife Winnie (1934), lasted from 1958 to 1996. They had two daughters.

The third time, Mandela married in 1998, Graça Machel (1945), widow of the deceased in a plane crash of President Samora Machel of Mozambique.

Of all the children from his first two wives, three daughters are still alive Mandela, a lot of grandchildren and great grandchildren.

In July 2012 Nelson Mandela’s daughter Zenani Mandela-Dlamini (Zenani Mandela-Dlamini) became South Africa’s ambassador to Argentina.

Former South African President Nelson Mandela has died at the age of 95 years.

The material is based on information RIA Novosti and open source

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