Linus Pauling

Submitted by on Sep 29, 2015

Linus Pauling) Biography Linus Pauling (Linus Pauling) Linus Carl Pauling) (1901-1994), Linus Carl Pauling (Linus Carl Pauling) (1901-1994), American chemist and physicist, awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into the nature of chemical bonding and structure determination of proteins. Born February 28, 1901 in Portland (Oregon). He graduated from the California Institute of Technology, in 1925 received his doctorate. He trained in European universities. Returning to America, he was appointed assistant at the California Institute of Technology. He headed the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, since 1931 – professor. In the years 1967-1969 – Professor, University of California, in the years 1969-1974 – a professor at Stanford University, since 1975 – at the Institute of Medical Research (now the Institute bears his name). First Pauling are crystallography, precisely because of them he first won I. Langmuir American Chemical Society; In 1924 he introduced the concept of this science of “defect structure”in the crystal lattice. In the years 1928-1931 developed quantum-mechanical method for studying the structure of molecules (along with the American physicist John. Sleyerom) – method of valence bonds and resonance theory, allow us to explain the structure of carbon-containing compounds, especially aromatic compounds. Since the beginning of the 1940s, Pauling began to study biomolecules. S, Of great importance for the development of molecular biology and human genetics was his discovery in 1940 of abnormal hemoglobin S, derived from the patient’s red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. S He expressed the assumption that the molecular nature of this disease was fully confirmed in 1961, when it was shown that hemoglobin S also differs from the normal in just one amino acid residue. Using the methods of quantum mechanics and X-ray analysis, Pauling laid the foundations of the structural analysis of proteins (with J.. Bernal and William Bragg) (1946-1950). a-In 1951, he teamed up with R. Corey published a series of brilliant works, which formulated the concept of the secondary structure of proteins – the theory of a-helix. a-Moreover, from these studies, it became clear that the proteins possess a tertiary structure (a-helix is ​​laid in the space in a certain way). In addition to these studies, Pauling studied vitamins, especially vitamin C. In 1946, Pauling was awarded the Medal D. Gibbs, in 1947 – the medal H. Davy, in 1951 – the medal G. Lewis. In 1933 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1949 he became president of the American Chemical Society, and in 1959 – a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The Nobel Peace Prize awarded to him for his struggle against the testing of nuclear weapons (1962) and the International Lenin Prize”for strengthening peace among peoples”(1970). In 1975, the US government awarded the National Medal for scientific achievement. The Nature of the Chemical Bond”, 1939),”No More War!”, 1958), “Vitamin C and the Common Cold”, 1970). Among the major works of Pauling – “nature of the chemical bond”(“The Nature of the Chemical Bond”, 1939),”Do not go to war”(“No More War!”, 1958),”Vitamin C and the common cold”(“Vitamin C and the Common Cold”, 1970). Linus Carl Pauling died in Big Sur (California) 19 August 1994. References to this page
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Linus PaulingLinus Pauling
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