Jean Paul Sartre

Submitted by on Sep 9, 2015

Jean-Paul Sartre) Biography Jean-Paul Sartre (Jean-Paul Sartre) Jean-Paul Sartre Aymar (1905-1980), French philosopher, novelist and playwright, was born in Paris and was the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, marine engineer, and his wife, née Anne-Marie Schweitzer, comes from a family of famous Alsatian scientists, cousin Albert Schweitzer. When the boy’s father died in 1906 from dengue fever, his mother took away Jean Paul first in Meudon near Paris where her parents lived, then, in 1911, in Paris, where his grandfather boy, Charles Schweitzer, professor, scholar Germanic and writer He created the Institute of Modern Language. Schweitzer, overbearing nature and Calvinist beliefs which had a marked influence on Sartre believed his grandson gifted boy, and pick up from school, invited him home teachers. These years Sartre spent in seclusion, reads a lot and very upset when his mother went out again in 1917, married, takes it with him in La Rochelle, western France. IV Back in 1920 in Paris, Sartre studying at the Lycée Henri IV and began to publish in the capital periodicals. In 1924 he entered the Ecole Normale syuperёr, where he studied philosophy and preparing for final exams for certification, giving the right to teach at the lyceum or university. In 1928, the exams he failed, but a year later, in 1929, Sartre received the diploma of the first degree, as Simone de Beauvoir, which has become over time a prominent figure in French literature and a close friend and collaborator of Sartre. After military service in the army meteorological Sartre from 1931 to 1936, he taught philosophy at the Lyceum in Le Havre, and in 1933-1934 probation in Germany, working at the Institute of France in Berlin, where he studied the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger’s ontology, Sartre found himself on a large influence. Returning in 1937 to France, he has been teaching in Paris. At the end of 1930, Sartre wrote his first major works, including Four philosophical work about the nature of the phenomena and consciousness. La Nausee”), Even as a teacher in Le Havre, Sartre wrote “Nausea”(“La Nausee”), his first and most successful novel, published in 1938. Nouvelle Revue Francaise”) Le Mur”). At the same time in the”New French Revue”(“Nouvelle Revue Francaise”) printed Sartre novel”The Wall”(“Le Mur”). Both works are in French books of the year. “XVIII Nausea”is a diary of Antoine Rokentena that working on biographies of the XVIII century, imbued with the absurdity of existence. Being unable to have faith, to influence the surrounding reality, Rokenten experiencing nausea; in the final of the hero comes to the conclusion that if he wanted to make his life meaningful, it needs to write a novel. Literary work, creativity – the only thing that has, according to Sartre, then, at least some sense. When World War II began. Sartre because of poor eyesight exempted from conscription, and again served in the meteorological enclosure; It is captured in a concentration camp for prisoners of war under the Trier, in 1941 he returned to Paris, where he continues to teach and write. During this period, politics plays in his life more important role than in the 1930s, when, except for criticism of bourgeois routine in the novel”Nausea”, the main interest of the writer were philosophy, psychology and literature. Although hostilities resistance movement Sartre did not participate, he founded the Society for Promotion of the resistance movement, where he met with Albert Camus. Combat”). who introduced him to the newspaper “combo”(“Combat”). Les Mouches”, 1943),”Huis clos”, 1944) L’Etre et le neant”, 1943), The main works of this time were Sartre play “The Flies”(“Les Mouches”, 1943),”Behind the closed door”(“Huis clos”, 1944) and the volume philosophical work”Being and Nothingness”(“L’Etre et le neant”1943), the success of which has allowed the writer in 1944 to leave the lycée Condorcet, where he is currently teaching. The play”The Flies”is a reworking of the Greek myth of Orestes to the discussion about existentialism, the doctrine that in the world there is no objective morality, and that people therefore have a right to free choice, to”being for itself”. Orestes refuses to repent to Zeus for the murder of his mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus – the murderers of his father Agamemnon. As a result of”free choice”of responsibility for the act, Orestes relieve your city from the Erinyes. When the German authorities realized that the play Sartre is essentially an impassioned plea for freedom, they have banned its production. The play”Behind the closed door”is a conversation of three characters in the underworld; the meaning of this conversation is to ensure that, in the language of existentialism, existence precedes essence, that a person’s character is formed by certain actions: the man-hero in essence would be a coward if decisive”existential”moment lost heart. Most people thought Sartre perceive ourselves as perceive their surrounding. As one of the characters of the play:”Hell – is other people.” The main philosophical work Surtur”Being and Nothingness”, which became the bible for young French intellectuals, Sartre holds the idea that consciousness, as such, no, simply because there is no consciousness of”pure consciousness”; there is only awareness of the external world of things around us. People are responsible for their actions only to ourselves, because every action has a certain value – regardless of whether aware of this report or the people there. By the end of World War II, Sartre became the acknowledged leader of the existentialists, gathered in”Café de Flore”area near the Saint-Germain-des-Pres on the Left Bank, a café, which has become a place of pilgrimage for French and foreign tourists. The popularity of existentialism was due to the fact that this philosophy has attached great importance to human freedom and was associated with the resistance movement. The cooperation of various strata of French society during the war, their opposition to a common enemy gives hope that existentialism, philosophy of action, able to unite intellectuals to create a new, revolutionary French culture. The next ten years Sartre works particularly fruitful. Les Mains Sales”, 1948) – Les Chemins de la liberte”, 1945-1949), In addition to reviews and critical articles, he wrote six plays, including the best, according to many, the play”Dirty Hands”(“Les Mains Sales”, 1948) – a dramatic study of painful compromises needed in politics – as well as unfinished tetralogy”Freedom Road”(“Les Chemins de la liberte”, 1945-1949), which shows how the existential freedom understood by different people, some of them take responsibility for their actions, while others – not. In the same years, Sartre wrote study the life and work of Charles Baudelaire (1947) and Jean Genet (1952) – experience of existentialism to the biographical genre, an attempt to analyze the person using the ontological categories of the book”Being and Nothingness”. Les Temps Modernes”), Sartre’s passion for Marxism became apparent in 1944, when he founded and headed the monthly literary magazine”New Times”(“Les Temps Modernes”), where the vital social and literary issues covered from the standpoint of Marxism. At the beginning of the 1950s, no longer interested in literature, theater, the problems of ethics and individual consciousness, Sartre moves towards a more open propaganda of Marxism, the solution of urgent social problems. Breaking in 1952 with Camus, criticized the extremist ideologies in favor of moderation, liberalism and democracy Sartre condemned the rejection of violence and declared that any attempt to avoid a revolution is a betrayal of humanity. Les Mots”, 1964), In”The Word”(“Les Mots”, 1964), a candid autobiographical novel about the first ten years of his life, Sartre calls the spiritual values ​​of his grandfather”bourgeois”rejects the literature that meets the aesthetic criteria, and proclaims the need for political and literary”engagement.” Critique de la raison dialectique”, 1960), The main work of this period was the philosophical work”Critique of Dialectical Reason”(“Critique de la raison dialectique”, 1960), which attempts to reconcile Marxism and existentialism. Sartre believed that with the help of”individual freedom”Marxism can be freed from prejudice, but with the help of Marxist theory – to turn the philosophy of existentialism of the individual in society philosophy. Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964″for the rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has had a tremendous impact on our future.” Referring to the fact that he”does not want to be turned into a public institution,”and fearing that the glory of the Nobel laureate only hinder his radical political activity, Sartre refused the prize. Over the last 20 years of his life, Sartre was more concerned with politics than literature or philosophy. With the zeal of religious reformer he sought to restore the”good name”of socialism. Sartre was never a member of the Communist Party, but the pro-Soviet sentiment remained before the events of 1956 in Hungary. In subsequent years, the writer has traveled extensively, actively opposed the class and national oppression, defended the rights of the ultra groups. Les Sequestres d’Altona”, 1960). Sincere supporter of Algerian independence, he compared the French colonial policy with Nazi crimes in the play”Aloof Altona”(“Les Sequestres d’Altona”, 1960). Strongly condemning the US military intervention in Vietnam, Sartre became chairman Bertrand Russell organized antiwar committee, accused the US of war crimes; strongly supports the Chinese and the Cuban Revolution, but later disappointed in the policies of these countries. Sartre welcomes students demonstration in Paris in 1968, but lost hope for a revolution in Europe, supporting himself (and calls for the other intellectuals) revolutionary changes in the countries of the”third world”. In 1970 Sartre is completely isolated, it is – the first time in 30 years – an outside observer of political processes. In the last years of his life, Sartre was almost blind due to glaucoma; write he could not, and instead gave numerous interviews to discuss political events with friends, listening to music, he often read aloud Simone de Beauvoir. Jean-Paul Sartre Aymar died April 15, 1980. Meaning Sartre, Heidegger believed that a writer rather than a philosopher, and Nabokov, on the contrary, more of a philosopher than a writer, yet to appreciate. Many critics think that the individualist morality early Sartre does not fit with his civic activism in the 1960s. However, the French structuralist philosopher Louis Althusser after the death of Sartre said:”He was our Jean-Jacques Rousseau.” XX In his obituary, published in the newspaper”Le Monde”, saying that”no French intellectual of the XX century, none of the Nobel laureate has not had such a profound, long-term and comprehensive impact as Sartre.” Sources: Nobel Prize: Encyclopedia: Trans. Progress with angl.- M., 1992. The HW Wilson Company, 1987. The HW Wilson Company, 1987. References to this page
Jean Paul SartreJean Paul Sartre
Jean Paul SartreJean Paul Sartre
Jean Paul SartreJean Paul Sartre

Leave a Comment