Ingmar Bergman

Submitted by on Sep 27, 2015

Ingmar Bergman – Biography

Ingmar Bergman (Bergman) (1918-2007) – Swedish director Director (from the Latin rego – manage) – director of performances, films, variety and circus programs. On the basis of their own creative intent (interpretation of the work) creates a new theatrical reality, combining work on the staging of theater and film Film (from the Greek kineo – move, move) – part of the compound word, indicating a connection with cinematography, for example cinema .. writer Script (from the Italian scenario):

1) A summary of the content of the play, plot scheme on which to create a view (performances) in the theater of improvisation, ballet performances, mass spectacles, and others.

2) The literary work intended to implement by means of cinematography and television .. playwright, novelist, essayist, producer of some of its films film (from the English film – film ) (film) – a set of photographic images (frames), consecutive on film-related single plot and designed to be played on the screen; work of cinema; in the narrow sense – film copies .. outstanding figure of the Scandinavian theater of the 20th century, an internationally recognized leader of the “author”of the trend in world cinema. Movies:”Sawdust and Tinsel”(1953),”The Seventh Seal”, “Wild Strawberries”(both 1957),”The Face”(1958),”Silence”(1963),”Autumn Sonata”(1978),”Fanny and Alexander “(1983), etc. to develop the theme of the tragic loneliness in modern society. He staged performances in the Drama and Opera House.

Ingmar Bergman was born July 14, 1918, in Uppsala in the family pastor. After graduating in 1944, the Faculty of Literature and Art art – artistic creation in general – literature, architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing, arts and crafts, music, dance, theater, cinema and other forms of human activity, united in an artistic shape the development of the world. In the history of aesthetics, the essence of art was interpreted as an imitation (mimesis), sensual expression of the supersensible, and so on. N. Stockholm University, worked as a director at the city theater Helsingborg (1944), Gothenburg (1946-49) and Malmo (1952-58). Since the beginning of 1960 staged performances on the stage of the Stockholm Royal Theatre “Dramaten”, in 1963-1966 he was its Director. In 1944 he made his debut in film as a screenwriter (“Bullying”, directed by A. Sjoberg).

Early Bergman’s filmmaking was marked by the typical representatives of the Swedish literary avant-garde Avant-garde (the vanguard) – the name of the combined artistic trends, more radical than Modernism. Their early milestone in the visual arts of the 1910s marked Fauvism and ism. The ratio of avant-garde art from the preceding styles, with traditionalism as such was particularly sharp and polemical.

Citing a powerful renewal of all artistic language, avant-garde gave a special scale of utopian hope for transformation of society through art, especially since it coincided with the blossoming of wars and revolutions. In the second half of the 20th century, its main principles were subjected to sharp criticism in postmodernism. 1940’s uncompromising criticism of social injustice, bigotry and hypocrisy of bourgeois morality and prosper in his native cultural and political isolationism. The heroism of his paintings – people challenging fate (“Crisis”1946,”Ship to India,”1947″Music in the darkness”, 1948), experiencing the collapse of the emotional world of love (“To the joy of”1949,”Summer Game”, 1950 “Summer with Monika”, 1952), dysfunctional couples (“Thirst”1949,”Women are waiting,” 1952). However, in the first film directed by the desire for an in-depth psychological analysis combined with the production of philosophical questions about the nature of life and man’s place in it (“Prison”, 1949).

With the new exigencies of Ingmar Bergman put forward these questions, considering them in the space of history and myth, to have earned him national and international fame of innovative tapes 1950s: in permeated by bitter social and critical pathos “Sawdust and Tinsel”(1953), rising to the origins of medieval folk theater”The Seventh Seal”(1956, Prize of the International Film Festival in Cannes) and immersed in the legendary past of”The Source”(1959), balancing on the verge of real and fantasy”Face” (1958, Prize of the International Film Festival in Venice, 1959) . The peak of Bergman ethical and artistic perfectionism in this period was marked by virtuosity figurative expressive solutions painful reassessment of values ​​in life drama that takes place at the end of the human way (“Wild Strawberries”, 1957).

Search for the origins of loneliness, the genesis of alienation – the focus of Bergman in his landmark films of the 1960s, developed in thematic trilogy Trilogy – the type of the work of one author (writer, musician), united by a common plan, continuity of the plot. the “silence of God”: “How in the mirror”(1960),”Communion”(1962),”Silence”(1963,”Oscar « Oscar » – the Academy Award, awarded annually since 1929 for the best English-language film, and achievements in various areas of the English language (mostly American) movies at 20 nominations, as well as for the best foreign-language film. In addition to the monetary prize, each winner awarded the golden statuette by artist Cedric Gibbons. “). Recalling the form “chamber play play .

1) The dramatic representation of the theatrical performance.

2) small musical instrumental or lyrical virtuoso writing. “Swedish writer Johan August Strindberg (a small number of actors, the narrow confines of time and space), they, like the filmed two years later daunting in its design and execution of a philosophical drama”Person”(1956), weighing testified that Ingmar Bergman in the world it’s a brand new movie associated with the subtle nuances of the inner life of people dimension. Having experienced the impact of the Danish philosopher, theologian and writer Theology (from the Greek theos – God and the logos – the word, the doctrine, and theology) – a set of religious doctrines and teachings of the nature and action of God. It involves the concept of absolute God communicated to man the knowledge of his revelation. In the strict sense of the theology to say with regard to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Soren Kierkegaard, one of the spiritual teachers filmmaker, Bergman analyzed in “Hour of the Wolf”(1965), the psychological state of losing her mind Reason and reason – correlative concepts of philosophy; Immanuel Kant from his mind – the ability of the formation of concepts, judgments, rules; intelligence – the ability to formation of metaphysical ideas. The dialectic of reason and reason is developed by Hegel: the mind as a lower capacity for abstract and analytical division is a prerequisite for higher education,”reasonable”, the concrete-dialectical understanding. Reason is often understood as the ability to operate with existing knowledge, mind – as the work of new knowledge. the artist, in a tape-dystopia “Shame”(1967) revealed the reasons for the degradation of a lonely person in the movie”The Passion”(1968),”The Touch”(1970),”Cries and Whispers” (1971) explored the painful dismantling the foundations of bourgeois marriage and family . Bergman depth comprehension of life conflicts virtually unparalleled in the experience of modern film art.

1970 marked in the works Creativity – the activity that generates something qualitatively new and different uniqueness, originality and socio-historical uniqueness. Creativity is specific to humans, as always presupposes a creator – the subject of creative activity. I. Bergman strengthening socio-critical and political-revealing motives. Live public outcry caused production in film and television film “Scenes from a Marriage”(1972) and the continuation of a kind – the movie”Face to Face”(1975). The sense of fragility, the fragility of the modern world order succinctly expressed in gallyutsinativnoy, with a dash of science fiction,”forecast”picture of the psychosocial origins of fascism in Germany,”The Serpent’s Egg”(1976). At the turn of the 1980s in the style of the director took over the trend towards a positive statement of ideological values. The major focus of these values ​​(and the fundamental principle of existence), by Bergman – family. It is in the family develops a busy inner conflict later from psychological masterpieces Masterpiece – the exclusive on its merits artwork exemplary creation wizard. Bergman’s”Autumn Sonata”(1977) and the scale of the epic saga of”Fanny and Alexander” (1982), which was the staging of the most expensive in the history of the Swedish film industry.

The artistic heritage is huge Bergman. Scene Sweden and other countries, they were delivered to more than 70 performances of the works of classical and modern drama, performed a series of performances on radio and television. In the movie, from 1946 to 1986, the director made 46 films (mostly on his own script), a series of films based on his scripts done by other directors. Winner of prestigious international film awards, including European Film Awards “Felix”(1988) and”branches of branches”50th Jubilee International Film Festival in Cannes (1997). In 1989 the Russian translation published his brilliantly written book of memoirs Memoirs (French memoires – memories) – a kind of nonfiction, literary narrative party social, literary, and artistic life of the events and people, a contemporary of which he was.”Laterna Magica”. His last film Ingmar Bergman “Sarabande” set in 2003.

Ingmar Bergman died July 30, 2007, at his home, located on an island in the Baltic Sea Feret. (n. M. Fingers)

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