Fernando Pessoa

Submitted by on Sep 7, 2015

Fernando Pessoa) Fernando Pessoa (Fernando Pessoa) On Autobiography of Fernando Pessoa is available here. In 1935, the poet wrote an autobiography, which was published in full in 1988. Fernando Pessoa in the “profession”have”translator.”He believed that”the poet and writer – is not a profession but a vocation.”There Pessoa figured monarchist control system is most suitable for the Portuguese nation. But since the monarchy revealed its inconsistency, he had to vote in favor of the Republic. Political opinion identified themselves antireaktsionym liberal conservatives. Regarding religion Pessoa considered himself a Christian Gnostic, opposing any organized church, especially the Catholic. Pessoa counted themselves as members of the secret traditions of Christianity, which has internal connection with the esoteric knowledge of the Jewish Kabbalah and the occult Freemasonry. In his autobiography, Pessoa said that he was privy to the initial three degrees of the Knights Templar. Therefore, the poet called to honor the memory of the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, Jacques de Molay and expostulate ruin his enemies: ignorance, fanaticism and tyranny. Pessoa was a supporter of a mystical nationalism, devoid of the influence of Roman Catholicism, and believed that Catholicism will gain spirituality in Portugal only with the appearance of a renewed mystical movement sebastianizma. Nationalist has to follow the motto”All for the sake of humanity, nothing against the nation.”Mensagem, 1934) Sonnets, 1918), «I-II» III» (English Poems I-II, English Poems III,1922). In”Autobiography”1935 Pessoa pointed his published works:”The message» (Mensagem, 1934) in Portuguese, and three in English:”35 Sonnets”(35 Sonnets, 1918),”The English verses I-II» and «English verses III »(English Poems I-II, English Poems III, 1922). http://arquivopessoa.net/textos/2106 The electronic archive of the poet: http://arquivopessoa.net/textos/2106 other specified date and lifetime editions of the poet in the English language: 1) The poem”Antinous”was written in English in 1915, 1st ed. 1918 Eng. lang. I-II». A second revised edition was included in the book”The English verses I-II». Jorge de Sena, 1974. Translations into Portuguese: Jorge de Sena, 1974. 2) Unknown writing”35 Sonnets”, 1st edition in 1921. 3) «I-II» Inscriptions» (The English verses I-II» called «Inscriptions» (total 14) were written in 1920 and 4) «III» Epithalamium» (The English verses III» called «Epithalamium» (total 21), written in 1913, 1st ed. 1921. 1921. 5) Mensagem, 1934). 5) Poetry collection in Portuguese”The message» (Mensagem, 1934). Work for researchers: inconsistency of dating – whether it is a hoax poet, or forgetfulness of the author. The controversial dating of his work by Pessoa is a big problem for researchers. We should not forget that during the life of Fernando Pessoa published his geteronimy. The selection of books in the library of Pessoa indicates a strong interest in world literature from Homer to Balzac. There is an excellent selection of the best poems of German poets. Particular attention is devoted to Shakespeare the poet. There Blavatsky, books about Freemasonry, astrology, Rosicrucianism, politics, sociology, and so on. http://casafernandopessoa.cm-lisboa.pt/bdigital/index/index.htm Digital Library Fernando Pessoa available at: http://casafernandopessoa.cm-lisboa.pt/bdigital/index/index.htm Pessoa believed Padre António Vieira”Emperor of the Portuguese language,””the greatest prose writer, or even more – the greatest artist of the Portuguese language.”Dostoyevsky and Gorky regarded fools. Keats put up Shakespeare as Keats was the creator, and Shakespeare – interpreter. However, Keats did not the creator of the best, but Shakespeare was the best of interpreters. About Joyce:”The Art of James Joyce, as Mallarme completely fixed on the process. Even sensuality of”Ulysses”is a symptom of mediation. This dreamy nonsense for psychiatry, presented as an end in itself.”On Oscar Wilde:”Wilde could never become a prominent figure in English literature. He managed to achieve fame only in English society, and in the literary circles of London. But it’s not the same thing. His ponderous prose does not justify the hopes of English civilization.”Pessoa noted commonalities destinies – his and Wilde. About Richard Wagner:”The Romantics tried to unite. Intersektsionisty seek alloy. Wagner wanted to follow the amount of”music + art + poetry”. We follow the multiplication of”Music’s painting’s poetry.”Considering Goethe Mason, under his influence, Pessoa wrote verse drama”Faust”. The allegory of Masonry drama is the eternal struggle of Mind and Life, in which the mind is always the losers. Faust tries to know the mystery of the world’s existence. Poet – a pretender His hypocrisy is so perfect, What he begins to pretend pain Pain that feels really O poeta é um fingidor. O poeta é um fingidor. Finge tão completamente Finge tão completamente Que chega a fingir que é dor Que chega a fingir que é dor A dor que deveras sente. A dor que deveras sente. As a small child remembers his first school bell, so every portugalist remembers the words of the great poet of Portugal. The meaning of these four lines refers to the other great Portuguese – to ICA. The attitude of these two pillars of Portuguese poetry far from the Buddhist understanding that life – this suffering, from which you can withdraw. Buddhism gives a way out of worldly suffering. As Camões, Pessoa all his hard suffered the pain and did not try to get rid of it. Psychologists, critics call a state of mind”existential drama.”saudade – The Portuguese, the key to understanding the soul that serves as a landmark the word”saudade» (saudade – yearning), put them monuments. «Queen of Fado”Amalia Rodrigues marked the memory of the two great Portuguese poets, singing fado poems Camões and Pessoa. Here’s what he wrote about himself Vladimir Nabokov:”I am an American writer, born in Russia, who was educated in England, where I studied French literature before fifteen years to move to Germany. …My head is talking in English, my heart – in Russian, and my ear – in French.”These words modernist Nabokov can be attributed to the biography of the modernist Pessoa, who was educated in South Africa, where he studied in the Irish school and lived for 10 years. Pessoa perfectly mastered English. In 15 years, the entrance exams to the University of Cape Town, he wrote an essay in English, which has received the highest rating, and was awarded the prize Queen Victoria. Pessoa and Nabokov bilingualism differ from other poets and writers of the modernist. Since 1937, the Russian writer Nabokov stopped writing in Russian. The exceptions are the”other shore”and its own interpretation of”Lolita”from English. Pessoa engaged in translations from English into Portuguese and vice versa, wrote poems in Portuguese, English and French. Mensagem, 1934). When the poet’s life came only one collection of poems in Portuguese”The message» (Mensagem, 1934). In English, it was published three collections of poems and poem”Antinous.”Should quote the words of Bernardo Soares, one of geteronimov Pessoa:”My homeland – is a Portuguese language.”Another parallel – the theme of the double. Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1945-1982) — Rainer Werner Fassbinder (Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1945-1982) – German film director, one of the leaders of the”new German cinema”in 1978, withdrew motion picture”Desperation”based on the novel by Nabokov in 1934. Hero of the film seems to be that he was watching his double. He meets a man who imagines his double and money negotiating with them to change roles in life. In fact, the hero wants to get rid of his double, to live a new life. The plan did not succeed. After the murder of his imaginary twin hero falls into the hands of the police, because they did not like each other. Eine Reise ins Licht — Despair Fassbinder dedicated his film Journey into Light – Despair / Eine Reise ins Licht – Despair Van Gogh. Fassbinder died at age 37 from a drug overdose. Van Gogh absinthe abuse. Drinking Pessoa your creative mentor Alberto geteronimu Kaeyru completely different. But Pessoa”kills”Alberto Kaeyru. Nabokov published under pseudonyms, and Pessoa wrote on behalf of their geteronimov. OCCULTISM Chevalier de Pas). First heteronym in his own words Pessoa appeared he was six years old in 1894 – Chevalier de Pas (meaning French pronunciation – Chevalier de Pas). This saw an attempt to fill the void created by the death of his father in 1893. cavaleiro» (French noble title Chevalier, Portuguese «cavaleiro» (Russian”gentleman”- rider) can be correlated with militant monastic knightly Order of the Knights Templar (Templar). Do Vale à Montanha, 24.10.1932). The image of the monk-knights on horseback appears in Pessoa’s poem”From the valley to the mountain» (Do Vale à Montanha, 24.10.1932). Walter Sarmento) Brazilian Mason Walter Sarmento (Walter Sarmento) interprets the word”valley”,”mountain”,”Knight Rider”in the Masonic symbolic key. Valley – the lowest level of dedication. Climbing out of the valley to the mountain – move to the highest degree, the development of the inner spiritual adept. Search – search for”Lost Word”(password Hiram). Knight Rider – adept, designed to search for”Lost Word.” Do vale à montanha, Do vale à montanha, Da montanha ao monte, Da montanha ao monte, Cavalo de sombra, Cavalo de sombra, Cavaleiro monge, Cavaleiro monge, Por quanto é sem fim, Por quanto é sem fim, Sem ninguém que o conte, Sem ninguém que o conte, Caminhais em mim. Caminhais em mim. From the valley to the mountain, From the mountain to a high mountain, Horse-shadow Knight Rider monk It is so infinite, What no one can describe, The way you overcome me. The words of Fernando Pessoa:”I am not a Mason, and do not belong to any similar or characterized Order. But I do not Antimasonic because everything that I know about this subject, creates a very favorable opinion of the Masonic Order.” Walter Sarmento draws attention to the expression of interest Pessoa Freemasons and quotes from”Masonry”, which is included in the”philosophical ideas”. Pessoa defended Masons, when one of the deputies of the National Assembly proposed to pursue all deputies Masons:”Without further ado, I can say today that the rare people who do not belong to the Masons, were able to reach so deeply into the study of the soul of this life and, therefore, derivatives and the so-called external aspects of it.”Walter Sarmento adds that the concept of brotherhood and deepening of Freemasonry in philosophical studies have found an admirer in Pessoa, which is reflected in the metaphorical play on words of his poem”From the valley to the mountain.” http://blogoaprendiz.blogspot.com/2012/02/fernando-pessoa-e-maconaria.html Source: http://blogoaprendiz.blogspot.com/2012/02/fernando-pessoa-e-maconaria.html Associações Secretas), 4-2-1935. Source citations F. Pessoa”Secret Association» (Associações Secretas), 4-2-1935. Da República (1910 – 1935). Da República (1910 – 1935). Fernando Pessoa. Fernando Pessoa. (Recolha de textos de Maria Isabel Rocheta e Maria Paula Mourão. Introdução e organização de Joel Serrão). (Recolha de textos de Maria Isabel Rocheta e Maria Paula Mourão. Introdução e organização de Joel Serrão). Lisboa: Ática, 1979. – 132. 1ª publ. Lisboa: Ática, 1979. – 132. 1ª publ. in Diário de Lisboa. in Diário de Lisboa. nº 4388, 4 Fev. nº 4388, 4 Fev. 1935 http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/obra-publica/30 1935 http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/obra-publica/30 It would seem that the most likely Pessoa in his autobiography meant the Order of Christ, restored in Portugal in 1918. But in a letter of 1935 he wrote that he is in any Order. The epigraph to”Eros and Psyche”refers only to the fact that he was allowed to view the description of the ritual of the first three degrees of the Knights Templar disappeared. But no one can cite the current rituals of the Order. Source link [1]. On his attitude to the occult Pessoa wrote in a letter to Adolf Kazaysh Munteyru. He is available to explain why the Masons (except for the Anglo-Saxons), whose opinion is shared by the poet, instead of the word”God”is used the term”Great Architect of the Universe.” Reference to the source [2]. However, Pessoa wrote,”God,”but not the”Great Architect of the Universe”in the collection of poems”The Message”(1934), the Masonic version used in personal letters. Escritos Íntimos, Cartas e Páginas Autobiográficas. Fernando Pessoa. (Introdução, organização e notas de Antoónio Quadros) Lisboa: Publ. Europa-América, 1986. – 199. 1ª publ. inc. in Presença, nº 49. Coimbra: Jun. 1937) http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/heteronimia/1 Source link [1], [2] – the famous letter Adolfo Kazaysh Munteyru on January 13, 1935 (Escritos Íntimos, Cartas e Páginas Autobiográficas. Fernando Pessoa. (Introdução, organização e notas de Antoónio Quadros) Lisboa: Publ. Europa-América , 1986. – 199. 1ª publ. inc. in Presença, nº 49. Coimbra: Jun. 1937) Online: http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/heteronimia/1 Pessoa was interested in mysticism, freemasonry, astrology, numerology, Kabbalah, the Rosicrucians. It was about 1500 horoscopes, including personal horoscopes of many famous people, their geteronimov and Portuguese poets. Pessoa astrologically determined the year of his death. Great influence of astrology in the work of the poet studied insufficiently, and his broad knowledge of horoscopes have not yet been adequately assessed. In 2011 he published a book researcher Paulo Cardoso”Fernando Pessoa. Astrological cards”. Aleister Crowley, 1875-1947) Introducing the authoritative British occultist Aleister Crowley (Aleister Crowley, 1875-1947) took place after Pessoa in 1929, he began to read his”Confessions”and the author of the letter pointed out the error in his horoscope. Crowley thanked in writing. Thus began a correspondence acquaintance. The first meeting took place on September 2, 1930 in Portugal. Reference to the source [3]. O Mistério da Boca do Inferno – O encontro entre o Poeta Fernando Pessoa eo Mago Aleister Crowley. Victor Belém. Lisboa. Casa Fernando Pessoa, 1995. Excerto da reportagem de Augusto Ferreira Gomes. in O Notícias Ilustrado. Lisboa: 5-10-1930.) http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/ocultismo/24 Certificate Pessoa meeting with Aleister Crowley, written in October 1930 (10-1930 O Mistério da Boca do Inferno – O encontro entre o Poeta Fernando Pessoa eo Mago Aleister Crowley. Victor Belém. Lisboa. Casa Fernando Pessoa, 1995. Excerto da reportagem de Augusto Ferreira Gomes. in O Notícias Ilustrado. Lisboa: 5-10-1930.) http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/ocultismo/24 Pessoa translated from English”Hymn to Pan”Aleister Crowley, and published it in 1931. Do not quenched the interest of researchers to this acquaintance. Hino a Pã – O Último Sortilégio). Is dedicated to the topic of the documentary directed by António Cunha”Hymn to Pan – Last Witchcraft» (Hino a Pã – O Último Sortilégio). Its output in the rental is scheduled for November 2012. Researchers believe that a proper understanding of the poet is not possible without taking into account the Hermetic writings. Interest Pessoa to hermetic began to emerge in 1906. The Circle) 1907 Examples are the poems of Alexander geteronima Serch”Nirvana”in 1906 and”Krug» (The Circle) of 1907, the mood that was obvious from reading the books on the Kabbalah and magic. Hermetic philosophy is the highest form of knowledge Pessoa. Occult poet is”internal, the other face of things.”O Filósofo Hermético). He wrote about this in the outline of the story called”The Hermetic philosopher» (O Filósofo Hermético). Berthelot: La Synthèse chimique). In the notebook Alexander Serch 1906 there is a reference to a book on alchemy Berthelot (1827-1907)”Chemical synthesis» (Berthelot: La Synthèse chimique). There are references to the book Papus”occultism and spiritualism.”However, a metaphysical throwing geteronimov Charles Robert Anon, Alexander Serch and especially of Fernando Pessoa were suddenly torn”mystical objectivity”Alberto Kaeyru. Before authority Alberto Kaeyru inclined Ricardo Reis and Alvaro de Campos. Only Fernando Pessoa keeps inner steadfastness of its continued hermetic mysticism. No Túmulo de Christian Rosenkreutz). Poems about Rose and the Cross, the search for the Holy Grail knight of the Round Table Galahad were published in the book”The Message”, 1934. The most famous esoteric poem by Fernando Pessoa is the”Tomb of Christian Rosenkreutz» (No Túmulo de Christian Rosenkreutz). CREATION In a brief note about Pessoa site Camoes Institute argues that along with Camões Pessoa is the most important figure of Portuguese literature. Pessoa as an independent poet, considered apart from its geteronimov is the greatest poet of the twentieth century, symbolist and modernist. Pessoa has collaborated with publications modernists and was a pioneer in the use of certain means of poetic discourse – and intersektsionizma sensatsionalizma, founder of the literary current paulizma. Pessoa wrote poetry and prose, published in press articles on political and sociological issues. XIX-XX Modernism turn of XIX-XX centuries striking diversity of its many aesthetic currents. Some poets went from living in a”world of art for art’s sake.”Kafka bequeathed to destroy their records and archives. Pessoa wrote a lot”on the table”(or more precisely – in the grandmother’s chest). He believed that he did not have the reader, for whom he did not write. From stuffed chest (over 27,500 pages) remaining after Pessoa’s death, his works continue to be published. http://magazines.russ.ru:81/inostran/1997/9/pessoa02.html Some are not a complete picture of the views of Fernando Pessoa can be composed of disparate quotes translated Boris Dubin, placed on the site: http://magazines.russ.ru:81/inostran/1997/9/pessoa02.html 1909 – founder of Futurism in Italy Marinetti publishes his manifesto. 1909 – this manifesto translated into Portuguese and published in the Azores. Not accepted. Not understood. 1915 – Aquilino Ribeiro in Paris to announce the creation of the Portuguese Futurism. 1915 – the actual birth of Futurism with the release of the Portuguese magazine”Orpheus – 2″ 1917 – edition of the first and last issue of”Futuristic Portugal”, which was published controversial futuristic manifesto geteronima Alvaro de Campos, is arrested by the police at the door of the printing. In 1915 the poet was involved in the publication of the literary magazine”Orpheus”. It turned out the only two rooms. With the publication of the second issue of Pessoa and his friend Mario de Sa Carneiro was its editor. According to Sá Carneiro”Maritime Ode”Pessoa, published in”Orpheus – 2″, became”a futuristic masterpiece.” XIX XX The interest in mysticism and the occult showed many modernists of the late XIX beginning of XX centuries. In this context, characterized by the name of the movie”Orpheus”surrealist Jean Cocteau (1889-1963). The film was shot in 1950 on the eponymous play by the author in 1926. Death of Orpheus carries through a mirror into another world for a meeting with the dead Eurydice. Supreme Court Condemns Death for her wrongdoing. http://lib.rus.ec/b/270876/read ). From 1918 to 1963, Jean Cocteau was Grand Master of the Priory of Sion, a secret society, who declared himself the heir of the Knights Templar (http://lib.rus.ec/b/270876/read). http://www.insite.com.br/art/pessoa/mensage3.php The credo of the poet Fernando Pessoa as a separate individual author (ortonima) – in the mystical verses of his only collection in Portuguese”Message»: http://www.insite.com.br/art/pessoa/mensage3.php There Pessoa appears as”mystical patriot”Portugal”rational sebashtianist”broadcasting typical Portuguese”saudade”. The poems of the collection dedicated to the King of Portugal, and imbued with an appeal and hope for the coming revival of the country. This article does not claim to literary criticism. The views of writers can be found in”Foreign Literature”, #9, 1997 located at the following address: http://magazines.russ.ru/inostran/1997/9/pessoa.html Much more interesting to view the attitude of the Portuguese writers to its poet. How much they love him and understand? Or do not understand? Perceive whether the Portuguese poet geteronimov his mask as a literary hoaxer Fernando Pessoa? Value translate poet pretender to the Chinese? The vast majority of poems by Fernando Pessoa existential. Some poems are romantic mood of Lord Byron. Civil lyric”Antonio de Oliveira SALAZAR”like a newspaper political cartoons, biased feuilleton. Hooray! The patriotic poetry”Our new Power”- saudazizhm. It is a rare example of love poetry.”Antinous”- imitation of the ancient, «terror antiquus – terror fati» (lat. Ancient horror – the horror of fate) in the loss of a lover Antinous Roman Emperor Hadrian, the tragic hymn to same-sex love. For the Russian reader, perhaps much closer reminiscences Lermontov, Tyutchev, Blok, Arseny Tarkovsky, Anna Akhmatova, Daniil Kharms, Andrei Platonov. Mystical poetry collection Fernando Pessoa”Message”celebrates the Portuguese kings and heroism in the Portuguese Age of Discovery. The subjects of the first two parts – Don Dinis, the journey of Vasco da Gama, the desire and the possibility of transforming the Portuguese Empire in the Fifth – similar to”Lusiads”Luis de Camoes. The third part of the book called”Hidden”(about Encoberto) devoted to Raiders of the Lost revival of patriotism and heroic past under the auspices of King Don Sebastian I wish (or concealment – of Encoberto). GETERONIMY -“drama in people» (drama em gente) Miguel Yeco. O Teatro íntimo do ser. 1986. Even as a child, Fernando Pessoa came the realization that”I”is not solid, but divided into many other”I”. Since childhood, I went not a monologue, but a dialogue with himself. In 1899, there heteronym Serch Alexander (Alexander Search), on whose behalf Pessoa wrote the letter himself. Serch Alexander was born on the same day and year as Fernando Pessoa, but died in his youth. http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/ocultismo/4 October 2, 1907, Alexander Serch entered into an agreement with Satan (jokingly). Business Card Alexander Serch Pessoa lived at the specified address in this business card from 1907 until the end of 1910 with the aunts and grandmother Dionisia. In 1906, he wrote:”Since the awareness of oneself, I discerned a congenital inclination to mystification, to an artistic deception. This is complemented by a great love for the spiritual, the mysterious.”English-Portuguese bilingualism further fueled split personality. When the poet’s life was published more of his poetry in English than in Portuguese. Many stood up to the frightening, sinister childish silent pitch darkness of their own intimate”I”, not having received a response from the abyss to the question”Who am I?”, Went to the side, trying to escape the humdrum. Pessoa explored their own”I”. Heteronym poet Alberto Kaeyru not cunning, when he wrote:”If after I die, will want to write my biography, it will be easier than ever: only two dates – birthday and day of death. Between the first and second all my days.”Dissemble Pessoa himself. The study of life, art, philosophy, Fernando Pessoa attracted the attention of many researchers, but to carry out such research is not easy. Difficult to dating. If Fernando Pessoa wanted to be ungrateful and wondered noble goal – he lied to the notorious American polygraph created followers of Sigmund Freud. In the confusing questions ekzameniruemomu can give confusing answers to the examiner. Nabokov did not accept Freudianism. Who are they – these geteronimy? If we consider geteronimov Fernando Pessoa, is worse than the expression”literary mask”not pick. A masquerade could disguise beyond recognition just for the fact that to the beloved (th) learned (a) signs assigned secret meetings in public.”Mask! I know you!””Fantomas! I recognize you! Take off the mask!”A good writer is different from the mediocre only higher apparent truthfulness – credibility. A good actor is not trying on a mask, but get used to the role and is going through a role. Cute Dunno touching a child tries on the mask of the poet. Any writer in describing his characters trying on their masks – rudimentary, so to speak latent form geteronimii. In Pessoa geteronimy live and die by their own lives, subconsciously harbor life of the author. Expression: Pessoa”kills”Alberto Kaeyru. Heteronym certain way correlated with a pseudonym. Heteronym and nickname in some way linked with the literary hoax. An adequate, truthful, and the best explanation he gave Pessoa. Little Fernando spent his childhood alone and with five years surrounding himself with fictional characters, the crowd. Captain Thibault and Chevalier de Pas – the names of the first geteronimov who stayed in his memory. In a letter to Adolf Kazaysh Munteyru 1935 Pessoa wrote that he did not need a doll to play with. He inhabited his inner world of human beings. This ability does not disappear when growing up, but so strengthened that turned into a natural state of mind. Here comes a question of maximizing the dramatic temperament, when, instead of theatrical drama with actions and regulations are written drama of human souls.”At the moment I have no identity: how much of me was not human, I still divided among various authors, being a performer of their work. Today I am meeting place for his little humanity. … I do not deny, on the other hand, stand for a psychiatric explanation. … So it turns out that I exist at the expense of their own”medium.””I am also a disciple Kaeyru …”Reference to the source [3] Letter Adolfo Kazaysh Munteyru on January 13, 1935. Páginas Íntimas e de Auto-Interpretação. Fernando Pessoa. (Textos estabelecidos e prefaciados por Georg Rudolf Lind e Jacinto do Prado Coelho.) Lisboa: Ática, 1966. – 101. http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/vida-e-obra/2 The bibliographic references of Fernando Pessoa published in «Presence», # 17. Coimbra: December 1928. (Presença. Nº 17. Coimbra: Dez. 1928 (ed. Facsimil. Lisboa: Contexto, 1993). – 250) is divided into a creation of the author two categories. One part belongs ortonimu (Fernando Pessoa), the second part – geteronimam. By this you can not use the concept of”anonymous”and”alias.”Alias ​​wrote on behalf of the author, just signed a different name. Heteronym does not belong to the personality of the writer, has its own personality, his statements belong to the character of internal drama. To date (1928) creativity geteronimicheskoe Fernando Pessoa created under three names: Alberto Kaeyru, Ricardo Reis and Alvaro de Campos. These individuals should be considered separately from their author. Each of them creates its own drama, all of them together form another drama. Alberto Kaeyru when writing his poems adhere to a particular orientation. The other two were his students, their creativity stems from various aspects of the poetic orientation of teachers. Ricardo Reis – a pagan, wrote in the style of ancient authors. Alvaro de Campos calls himself”sensatsionistom”, writes under the influence Kaeyru and Walt Whitman (Walt Whitman), being an emotional person, is the cause of numerous complications and scandals, what is the general irritation, especially Fernando Pessoa, who can not do anything about it, and forced to publish his works. The work of these three poets is, so to say, dramatic unity. They are connected personal relationships, can be traced intelligent interaction. It is a drama in people instead of the drama in the Acts. None of these alone geteronimov not published a pamphlet or a book of his own poems. All its publications are obliged to cooperate Fernando Pessoa in the magazines”Orpheus”and”Athena”. Pessoa does not intend to carry out a full wide publication due to lack of the reading public and the availability of sufficient funds. In 1917? , three geteronima constitute”general program of the Portuguese neo-paganism.”Pessoa like Orton is also a character in the drama geteronimov.”All ancient pagan civilization, which for the Kaeyru his own flesh and blood, was and is for Ricardo Reis favorite childhood memories – a knowledge of the world, teaching, rooted in existence. Initially, the man knocked me up when happily sang invented or imagined things that are nothing but suffering and terror do not suggest all people – materiality, death, oblivion. Then he knocked me up by the fact that not only did it with joy, but share this joy to others. When I was very sad, I read Kaeyru and it read to me as a breeze. I immediately calmed down, I want to sing, I gain faith – yes, I dwell in the faith in God, the soul, in a tiny transcendental life after reading the poems of atheist about God and about a person without their own land.””He loves us just Kaeyru poet, not Kaeyru philosopher. What we really get from these verses – a children’s perception of life from all direct material concepts of childhood, with all the vital spirituality of hope and growth is our unconscious soul, body and childhood. This work appears to us the dawn, which awakens and inspires us, however, that the dawn of more than material, more than an anti-spiritual, because it produces an abstract effect, the effect of vacuum cleaner, nothing.””His poems are direct perception, which opposes his soul to our not natural notions, our artificial mental civilization spread out on the shelves, rip off our false clothes, wash away from the face make-up, cleanses the stomach of pharmaceuticals, is included in our house, and shows us, that the table of the tree – the tree, the tree, the tree that table – a necessary delusion of our will, produce tables. I would be happy if at some point in their lives could see a table like wood, feel like wood table – see the wood of the table, without seeing the table. Then he returned to a”knowing”that it is a table, but the rest of his life not to forget that he is – the tree. And love to the table, even better – the table as a table. In this way Kaeyru influenced me. I stopped seeing the phenomenon of things, their divine and human integrity, but at the same time I see their material soul, that from which they are made. I was free. From the moment I like to become one of the Rosicrucians, which is legendary, and it is true that outwardly they resemble the steel people live according to their customs and habits, but carry the secrets of the universe, and always know where the”door escape”and what is the magic of the inner nature.”No dating. It was a quote from the book of the Portuguese scholar of the poet”Pessoa for knowledge – the texts of the new map”Teresa Rita Lopes. Lisbon: Eshtampa, 1990. – 375.”Notes to the memory of my teacher Kaeyru» (Pessoa por Conhecer – Textos para um Novo Mapa. ​​Teresa Rita Lopes. Lisboa: Estampa, 1990. – 375. «Notas para a recordação do meu mestre Caeiro »). Source: http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/heteronimia/22 Pessoa explains the creation of his geteronimov or literary personalities. Source: http://multipessoa.net/labirinto/heteronimia/1 Short translation of the letter Adolfo Kazaysh Munteyru on January 13, 1935. The first of the best-known geteronimov appeared Ricardo Reis. Pessoa recalled in the letter that”in 1912, he got the idea to write a few poems in imitation of the ancients, in the pagan style.”He jotted down a few things in blank verse. Thus before Pessoa appeared dim portrait of the man who wrote it. Pessoa had no idea then that he was born Ricardo Reis. One and a half or two years, then decided to invent Pessoa bucolic, who would have company for Sa Carneiro.”Within the bottom I could do nothing.””In Kaeyru I put all my strength dramatic depersonalization, Ricardo Reis gave all his mental discipline, dressed in his characteristic musical in Alvaro de Campos, I breathed the entire emotionalism that deprives himself all his life.”March 8, 1914,”I wrote one after the other about thirty poems while staying in some ecstasy, the nature of which I could not identify. It was the triumphal day of my life, the other the same day I will never be presented. I then began to compose”Guardian Stud» (O Guardador de Rebanhos). After that there was somebody in me, to whom I once gave the name Alberto Kaeyru. Excuse me for the absurdity of the phrase: I came into my teacher. It is an instant feeling I experienced. After the works of thirty poems I took more paper and then wrote six poems that make up the”slanting rain”Fernando Pessoa. Completely and instantly. It was the return of Alberto Kaeyru of Fernando Pessoa in Fernando Pessoa. Or rather, it was the reaction of Fernando Pessoa that he did not exist as Alberto Kaeyru. After the appearance of Alberto Kaeyru immediately instinctively and unconsciously any of his students.”Thus was born a pagan counterfeit Ricardo Reis. Behind him there was no respite Alvaro de Campos. On a typewriter it was written”Triumphal Ode» (Ode Triunfal).”I distributed interaction, I struck up a friendship, inside myself I heard the debate and conflicting opinions, and I think that I am the creator of all things, is the least significant figure. It seems that everything happened independently of me. And it seems that until now everything what happens. If ever I can publish a discussion about aesthetics between Ricardo Reis and Alvaro de Campos, you will see how they are different, and I’m out in their dispute. Before the publication of”Orpheus”at the last minute it was necessary to urgently come up with something for the complete set number of pages. I reminded Sa Carneiro, I was able to write”old”poem Alvaro de Campos, he allegedly wrote to his acquaintance with Alberto Kaeyru. This poem is not carrying any impact would Kaeyru. So, I wrote a”pipe dream”, which were presented to potential Alberto Kaeyru that will be implemented later, but devoid of traces of contact with his teacher Kaeyru.””I think I have explained to you the origin of my geteronimov.””I came up with their lives. Ricardo Reis was born in 1887 in Porto, he is a doctor, is currently in Brazil. It is low growth, but wiry and strong, somewhat dark. Educated at the Jesuit college. Because of its monarchical convictions, he was forced to expatriate to Brazil in 1919. He taught Latin, Greek and studied independently. Kaeyru Alberto was born in Lisbon in 1889 and died there of tuberculosis, but lived all his life in the village of the province of Ribatejo. He had no profession or education. Kaeyru had a delicate constitution and was of medium height, with blond hair and blue eyes. His parents died early, he lived with his old aunt on meager incomes. Alvaro de Campos was born in Tavira October 15, 1890. He is an engineer-shipbuilder from Glasgow, but currently idle in Lisbon. He is taller than me by 2 centimeters, its height of 1.75 m. And a little thin, stoops or white or brown, looks like a Portuguese Jew, but he straight hair combed to the side, wearing a monocle. Got an ordinary upper secondary education, then he was sent to Scotland to study mechanics and shipbuilding. It was on a trip to East resulting in the poem “pipe dream.”Latin taught him a priest from the coast. Short translation of the letter Adolfo Kazaysh Munteyru on January 13, 1935. 1st publication of”Presence», # 49. Coimbra, June 1937. Fernando Pessoa was still semi-heteronym, which the poet is completely separated from the self: Bernardo Soares (Bernardo Soares), assistant librarian, wrote one of the most brilliant and mysterious prose works -“The Book of anxiety» (Livro do Desassossego). This book, published in parts from 1929 to 1932, is considered one of the fundamental examples of modern Portuguese literature. It would be interesting to see the reaction of anti-communist Pessoa, if he knew that a Communist José Saramago in 1984 will publish the novel “Death of Ricardo Reis Year.”As Pessoa does not have the year of death of one of its geteronimov, Saramago took it upon themselves to describe the life of Ricardo Reis after Pessoa’s death in the formative years of the Salazar regime. Truth can not be put into words. Any writer is lying and does not reflect the truth, inventing, fantasizing. This is called”literary field”or”writer’s craft ‘- creativity. In English, for this there is a wonderful word «fiction» – Fiction. The semantic meaning of «fiction» – fiction, speculation, fantasy, fiction. The reader is made with a secret writer”Treaty of plausibility”: “Speak, speak – how do you get interesting. But tell me something else. “Everything is of little interest when running out the plausibility when the writer loses the confidence of the reader. When geteronimov Pessoa used to show the depths of the unknown to the reader, the reader thought that the author of his fooling, and mocked him, mystified. Pessoa leads the reader to the sinister dark gaping abyss of their own”I”. Attempts to disrupt contractual hypocritical mask with the reader. An inquisitive curious reader comes exaltation. Especially when”Avtopsihografii”Pessoa wrote O poeta é um fingidor – «poet – is a pretender.”It is appropriate to quote the dictionary: fingir 1. vi 1) to fantasize, to invent 2) pretend to simulate 3) imitate 2. vi pretend to be hypocritical fingidor m pretender, a hypocrite The poem”Avtopsihografiya”(1st publication in the”Presence”, number 36, Coimbra, November 1932) can rightly be considered the hallmark of the poet Fernando Pessoa, his credo, the software product. At the same time it geteronimy have their own software compositions. The reader has a difficult task – to get rid of illusions and understand the multi-layered and diverse heritage of not one, but several poets schematically display which serves not only as the wind rose and the zenith and nadir. This will help to better know himself. AUTOPSICOGRAFIA O poeta é um fingidor. Finge tão completamente Que chega a fingir que é dor A dor que deveras sente. E os que lêem o que escreve, Na dor lida sentem bem, Não as duas que ele teve, Mas só a que eles não têm. E assim nas calhas de roda Gira, a entreter a razão, Esse comboio de corda Que se chama coração. The poet invents a mirage – Deceiver, truthful to tears, Feel an hour of silence Do not these two pains, and the third, They are deprived of. So, stop not knowing And the voice of reason backwoods Toy clockwork circling, And everyone says – the soul. Translated by A. Geleskul If the”Learn”and blogs to write something like”Ophelia comes to the Lisbon cafe”Brazilian”June 13, 2013″(write) – no one will believe, but there gather a crowd. You can take a picture with Peter I in the Peter and Paul fortress in the memory. Anyone know what TA Ophelia (the name of the beloved Pessoa) is not enough. None of the tourist does not speak to Peter the Great to remove the mask. These are the rules of the game. It creates the view that Mr Fernando Pessoa broke the rules of the literary game. Literary critics began to rebuke him, shoot antics. During the life of the little-known Portuguese writer interested in special services. Like this? Under the guise of such work? Pessoa knew the rules, but from childhood felt the desire for mystification. Realizing that the man never realizes itself as the truth not fully understand Pessoa aired the idea of ​​the reader through the words of geteronimov. «No. First, take off your mask literary!””Take off the mask itself!”At present, the number of detected individual researchers geteronimov, semi-geteronimov and aliases Fernando Pessoa exceeded one hundred. According to the latest Brazilian José Paulo Cavalcanti Filho (José Paulo Cavalcanti Filho) geteronimov list includes 127 names. Home Research geteronimov Pessoa put Teresa Rita Lopes (Teresa Rita Lopes) – in 1966, it consisted of a list of 18 names. It is very characteristic of the name of one of the lectures of authoritative researchers Pessoa Richard Zenith”, Fernando Pessoa – poet of the two languages, and many masks» Richard Zenith – “Fernando Pessoa, Poeta de Duas Línguas e Muitas Máscaras”. The lecture was presented to the public as part of the conferences in Johannesburg and Durban, organized by the Consulate General of Portugal in October-November 2010, with the support of the Camões Institute. Chronology of the life of Fernando Pessoa 1888 – June 13 in Lisbon, birthplace of the great Portuguese poet. 1893 – his father’s death. 1894 – First appearance of geteronimov. 1895 – the first children’s poem is written with a dedication to his mother. 1896 – departure to Durban, South Africa. 1896-1905 childhood and youth in Africa. 1899 – appears heteronym Serch Alexander (Alexander Search), on whose behalf Pessoa wrote the letter himself. 1901 – the first known poem, now in English “Separated from thee”. Year held in Portugal. Visit the mother’s family on Terceira Island Azores. During the reception of British education in Durban experiencing loneliness, isolated, deep into reading Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, Milton, Byron, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Tennyson. 1902 – the first publication of the poem Pessoa. 1903 – admission to the University of Cape Town. Writing in English Pessoa was awarded the prize Queen Victoria – 1st place among 899 candidates. In 1903, Alexander wrote a poem Serch in English and Portuguese. During his studies, new geteronimy: Charles Robert Anon and H. MF Lecher (Charles Robert Anon, HMF Lecher). Poetry and prose in English. 1905 – return to Portugal. 1906 – receipt of the Faculty of the University of Lisbon. He throws his studies without completing the first course. Begins to show interest in the work of the most important Portuguese writers, especially Cesar Verde and sermons of Padre António Vieira. 1908 – begins to translate business correspondence, what he did until his death. The predominant language of such correspondence in Portugal was English. 1912 – in the magazine “Eagle» (A Águia) published the first essays and literary criticism, Fernando Pessoa. The magazine, which published literature, art, scientific and philosophical articles have a profound influence on Portuguese intellectuals. In it the authors published various modernist trends: the Symbolists, Futurists, impressionists, Nietzscheans. 1914 – the birth of the first primary master Alberto Kaeyru geteronima. Pessoa begins to write on behalf of the three geteronimov. 1915 – Pessoa participated in the first and the second (last) edition of “Orpheus”. The first issue Pessoa prints a static drama “Sailor» (O Marinheiro), for the first time publishes his poem geteronima Alvaro de Campos “opium”and”Triumphal Ode» (Opiário, Ode Triunfal). Pessoa “kills”Alberto Kaeyru. In the second issue of”Orpheus”Pessoa publishes”Marine ode» (Ode Marítima) geteronima Alvaro de Campos. Fernando Pessoa is a new trend intersektsionizma poem “slanting rain» (Chuva oblíqua). Pessoa takes work Leadbeater Blavatsky and Portuguese. 1916 – April, another suicide Mário de Sá Carneiro. Published poem “absurd hour» (Hora Absurda), which Pessoa wrote in 1913, anticipating the emergence of a new literary movement paulizma. In Pessoa appears the phenomenon of automatic or mediumnogo letter. In September, the poet decided to remove sirkunfleks when writing his name: «Pessôa» turns into «Pessoa». 1917 – publication of the Futurist Manifesto “Ultimatum”Alvaro de Campos – on the destroyed before the foundation of the old world proclaimed the creation of a superman. 1918 – Fernando Pessoa at his own expense 1 print edition of the poem”Antinous”, composed by 1915 and the 1st edition of “35 Sonnets”written in English. 1919 – Pessoa publishes political and sociological articles. The overthrow of the newly proclaimed monarchy. Monarchist heteronym Ricardo Reis hiding in Brazil. 1920 – Various publications Pessoa admired and supported the policies of the president-king Sidonia Pais (Sidónio Pais), after the murder of which he has dedicated his poem. 1921 – 1st Edition in English”English verse I-II» (Inscriptions), written in 1920, and “English verse III» (Epithalamium), written in 1913. 1922 – Pessoa publishes the story “The banker anarchist» (O Banqueiro Anarquista), written in January of the same year. The press published his critical article “Anton Botha – aesthetic ideal of Portugal”on the collection of poems”Songs» (Canções) Portuguese poet António Botha (António Botto, 1897-1959). The author was a personal friend of Pessoa, who in 1930 moved his “Songs”in English. When Anton Botha read in the newspaper announcement of dismissal from work, he commented ironically:”I – the only recognized in Portugal homosexual.”Speaking from reading his poems before the exile in Brazil, the poet enjoyed great success among the creative intelligentsia, particularly Amalia Rodrigues, João Villareta and Aquilino Ribeiro. Arguing with Pessoa, his heteronym Alvaro de Campos wrote that”he liked the book of poems”Songs”, because she does not like his own works. But creativity António Boto completely immoral.”Pessoa is absolutely wrong, chanting aesthetic perfection Hellenistic ideal of the male, not female beauty. 1923 – publication of three poems by Pessoa in French. From England to Lisbon returns heteronym Alvaro de Campos and resumes his poetry, which was interrupted in 1915. The press published his decadent poem in Portuguese language”again visited Lisbon» (Lisbon Revisited). Pessoa publishes the manifesto”On the Manifesto of students”in support of Raul Leal and heteronym Alvaro de Campos distributed leaflets with the manifesto directed against students seeking to ban the collection”Songs”Antonio Boto and the book”deified Sodom» (Sodoma Divinizada) Raul Leal (Raul Leal, 1886-1964) of a mystical pederasty. 1924 – begins to publish a monthly literary magazine “Athena» (Atena), headed by Fernando Pessoa and get your Rui. Athena – Revista de Arte. Lisboa: 1924. In the “Athena”, inter alia, have been published: 1) verses Pessoa; 2) Pessoa translated from English into Portuguese of the poem “The Raven”and the last poems of Edgar Allan Poe, three stories about ‘Henry; 3) Pessoa translated from English to Portuguese film Mona Lisa Walter Pater; 4) The last poem Mario de Sa Carneiro preceded Article Fernando Pessoa; 5) ode geteronima Ricardo Reis; 6) Selected Poems geteronima Kaeyru Alberto (1889-1915) from the collections of”Keeper of the Stud”and”Selected Poems”(in Russian translations found the name”Shepherd» – O Guardador de Rebanhos, Poemas Inconjuntos); 7) in the article “What Is Metaphysics?”Alvaro de Campos heteronym argues the definition of Fernando Pessoa”metaphysics – is an art, but not science”; 8) Article geteronima Alvaro de Campos “Notes on Aristotle’s not aesthetics.”1926 – Pessoa directs the publication”Journal of commerce and accountancy.”1927 – began to cooperate with the magazine «Presence» (Presença). 1928 – Pessoa published an article”interregnum. Protection and vindication of the military dictatorship in Portugal.”In 1932, the author abandons the publication, saying that”it does not exist.”1929 – first appears in print an excerpt from the”Book of anxiety» (Livro do Desassossego). The remaining 10 passages printed until 1932. All of the”Book of anxiety”signed by Fernando Pessoa, but attribuiruyutsya”Bernardo Soares (Bernardo Soares), assistant librarian.”In the”Presence”, edited by Juan Gaspar Simoensha (João Gaspar Simões) out the first study of creativity Pessoa. Pessoa sends your photo for his beloved Ophelia, which marks the second phase of their relationship. 1932 – Published article Pessoa”The Portuguese mentality» (O Caso Mental Português).”Presence”publishes”Avtopsihografiyu» (Autopsicografia). 1934 – publication of a single lifetime poetry collection Pessoa in Portuguese”The message» (Mensagem). Collection receives award Antero de Kentau second category. For obtaining the first prize lacks the minimum volume of 100 pages. 1935 – January 13 Pessoa wrote the famous letter Adolfo Kazaysh Munteyru about the genesis of his geteronimov. Pessoa has publicly opposed the adoption of the law on the prohibition of secret societies. On February 4, the newspaper “Diario de Lisboa”published his article”Secret Association» (Associações Secretas). Assembly unanimously passed a law against secret societies. The poem “Freedom”opens the cycle, directed against the policies of Salazar. 1935 – November 30, Fernando Pessoa finished career. Sources: 1)”Message”in 1934 in the format «jpg» http://casafernandopessoa.cm-lisboa.pt/bdigital/8-435/1/8-435_item1/P104.html 2) The magazine”Athena”1924-1925. http://casafernandopessoa.cm-lisboa.pt/bdigital/0-28MN/2/0-28MN_item2/index.html 3) Full electronic text”Autobiography” Pessoa 1935 in Portuguese http://casafernandopessoa.cm-lisboa.pt/index.php?id=2246 Original text Contribute a better translation
Fernando PessoaFernando Pessoa
Fernando PessoaFernando Pessoa
Fernando PessoaFernando Pessoa

Leave a Comment